宇航学报 ›› 2014, Vol. 35 ›› Issue (12): 1430-1436.doi: 10.3873/j.issn.1000-1328.2014.12.012

• 制导、导航与控制 • 上一篇    下一篇

航天器自主交会对接的高精度目标定位方法

张莹瑾,秦世引,胡晓惠   

  1. 北京航空航天大学自动化科学与电气工程学院,北京 100191
  • 收稿日期:2013-12-09 修回日期:2014-05-16 出版日期:2014-12-15 发布日期:2014-12-25
  • 基金资助:

    国家自然科学基金(60875072,61273350)

A High Accuracy Target Positioning Method for Autonomous Rendezvous and Docking Between Spacecrafts

ZHANG Ying jin, QIN Shi yin, HU Xiao hui   

  1. School of Automation Science and Electrical Engineering, Beihang University, Beijing 100191, China
  • Received:2013-12-09 Revised:2014-05-16 Online:2014-12-15 Published:2014-12-25

摘要:

根据航天器自主式交会对接的实际应用背景和技术需求,针对交会对接过程中所要求的高精度、实时性和强抗扰的技术指标,在合作目标特性分析的基础上,将高斯曲面拟合与双线性插值相结合,提出了一种高精度的合作目标定位方法。首先根据目标图像的灰度分布进行双线性插值和高斯曲面拟合,在此过程中可同时利用目标原有像素和插值点的亚像素信息,使拟合曲面各幅值点的坐标精度达到亚像素级,以确定目标的中心位置。仿真图像和实拍图像的试验结果表明,此定位方法具有亚像素级的定位精度,其总体定位误差可达到1/20个像素左右,并能满足实时性要求,可以在航天器交会对接与空间遥操作等方面的应用中发挥重要作用。

关键词: 合作目标识别, 目标定位, 高斯曲面拟合, 自主式交会对接

Abstract:

According to the practical background and technical requirements for autonomous rendezvous and docking (ARVD), a high accuracy target positioning method is proposed by combining Gaussian surface fitting with bilinear interpolation in view of the performance indices such as real-time and high accuracy as well as strong anti-disturbance in the process of ARVD. The analysis of target gray-level distribution is employed to carry out the bilinear interpolation and the Gaussian surface fitting in which both real target pixels and interpolated sub-pixel points can be used so that the positioning accuracy can achieve sub-pixel level for the estimation of target center position. A series of experimental results with both simulation images and real images demonstrate that the proposed method has advantages of both excellent positioning accuracy and real-time performance in that the overall positioning error can reach approximately 1/20 pixels. Therefore, the proposed method may be applied in the ARVD, space teleoperation and other relative motion fields to play a important role in engineering practices.

Key words: Cooperative target recognition, Target positioning, Gaussian surface fitting, Autonomous rendezvous and docking (ARVD)

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