宇航学报 ›› 2022, Vol. 43 ›› Issue (5): 696-704.doi: 10.3873/j.issn.1000-1328.2022.05.014

• 空间科学 • 上一篇    

兆瓦级探月火箭空间核电源系统设计与性能研究

张振寰,张昊春,张冬,黄子亮,张海明
  

  1. 哈尔滨工业大学能源科学与工程学院,哈尔滨 150001
  • 收稿日期:2021-07-09 修回日期:2021-11-23 出版日期:2022-05-15 发布日期:2022-05-15
  • 基金资助:

Design and Performance Research of Megawatt class Space Nuclear Power System for Lunar Rockets

ZHANG Zhenhuan, ZHANG Haochun, ZHANG Dong, HUANG Ziliang, ZHANG Haiming   

  1. School of Energy Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001, China
  • Received:2021-07-09 Revised:2021-11-23 Online:2022-05-15 Published:2022-05-15

摘要: 针对目前空间核电源在深空探测领域功率不足的问题,结合热离子热电转换空间核电源和碱金属热电转换空间核电源的发电方式,提出一种新型空间核电源。计算堆芯有效增殖因子、功率峰值因子、冷却剂空泡系数和停堆深度等安全性参数,并通过分析接收极功函数和碱金属热电转换系统电流密度等性能参数。之后,对比耦合发电系统与原热离子热电转换空间核电源和碱金属热电转换空间核电源的效率,发现新型耦合发电系统发电效率分别较另两种发电系统提高约6%和约10%。最后建立动态模型进行分析,确保核电源可以稳定运行,为大功率核电源设计提供理论依据。

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Abstract: Aiming at the problem of insufficient power of space nuclear power supply in deep space exploration, a new type of space nuclear power source is proposed by combining two power generation methods of thermionic thermoelectric conversion and alkali metal thermoelectric conversion. Safety parameters such as core effective multiplication factor, power peaking factor, coolant cavitation coefficient, and shutdown depth are calculated; and performance parameters such as the work function of receiving pole and the current density of the alkali metal thermoelectric conversion system are analyzed. Then, the efficiency of the coupled power generation system is compared with that of the thermionic thermoelectric conversion and the alkali metal thermoelectric conversion space nuclear power systems. It is shown that the power generation efficiency of the new system is increased by about 6% and about 10% respectively compared with the other two systems. Finally, a dynamic model is established for analysis to ensure the stable operation of the nuclear power supply, which provides a theoretical basis for the design of high power nuclear power supply.

Key words: Space nuclear power, Core safety, Coupled power generation

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