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  • Several Engineering and Technical Issues in the Development of Cislunar Space
  • ZHANG Yulin, LIU Hongwei, JIANG Chao, GAO Yongfei, CHENG Zilong, LI Taibo, HU Ruijun, ZHOU Hao
  • 2023, 44 (4): 612-632. doi: 10.3873/j.issn.1000-1328.2023.04.015
  • Abstract ( 1498 ) HTML ( 59 ) PDF (9693KB)( 679 )

    In view of the key engineering and technical issues in the development of cislunar space, studies are carried out from the perspectives of cislunar space transportation, resources of the Moon and small celestial bodies, lunar robots, and the cislunar space economic system. Cislunar space transportation can be divided into phases such as round-trip between the Earth and the orbit, Earth-Moon transfer, and lunar landing and ascent. It is necessary to develop different vehicles, transportation modes and reuse schemes according to the environmental characteristics of different phases, and consider the integrated design of the space station near the Earth and manned lunar exploration. The abundant resources of the Moon and small near-Earth objects are the material basis for the development of cislunar space. The geostationary orbit is an ideal industrial park in cislunar space. The vacuum, low gravity, low temperature and sufficient solar energy in lunar space facilitate the development of electrification transportation such as magnetic levitation, space elevator and skyhook. Facing the harsh lunar environment and scarce human resources, the lunar robot will play a leading and main role in infrastructure construction, astronaut accompaniment and assistance, human-machine cooperation. The development of cislunar space is not only for manned landing on the Moon, but also for the establishment of cislunar economic system. It will promote the national interests to extend from the land and the sea to cislunar space, promote the development of space industry from the earth to cislunar space, and accelerate the progress of human society from the earth civilization to the solar system civilization.

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  • Development and Key Technologies of Long March 8 Family: China’s Next-generation Medium-lift Launchers
  • SONG Zhengyu, LIU Lidong, CHEN Xiaofei, XU Shanshu, WU Yitian
  • 2023, 44 (4): 476-485. doi: 10.3873/j.issn.1000-1328.2023.04.002
  • Abstract ( 698 ) HTML ( 88 ) PDF (5611KB)( 582 )

    The development of the Long March 8 (LM-8) series of launch vehicles is reviewed, which is designed to fill the gap of the payload capability of 3 to 4.5 tons to the sun-synchronous orbits (SSO), and to derive the no-side-booster configuration covering the payload capability of less than 3 tons, thus taking the main role of the madium-lift launchers in the launch market to constitute China’s next-generation of launch vehicles. On this basis, research and development of the LM-8 variants is being carried out to further improve the performance and shorten the launch period. The key technologies of the LM-8 with fundamental configurations are introduced, and the innovations of the upgraded version being developed are discussed, including the closed-loop self-pressurization for the hydrogen tank, the hydrogen and oxygen common bottom tank with a diameter of 3.35 meter and PMI sandwiches, etc. In line with the construction of the Wenchang commercial launch site, the future development of Long March 8 series is prospected.

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  • Development Prospects of Intelligent Flight Technology of China’s Space Transportation System
  • WU Yansheng
  • 2023, 44 (3): 313-321. doi: 10.3873/j.issn.1000-1328.2023.03.001
  • Abstract ( 485 ) HTML ( 95 ) PDF (3133KB)( 663 )

    Aiming at the problem of improving the flight reliability of the space transportation system based on the reliability limit of products, a technical approach of breaking through the application of intelligent flight technology to support the higher-quality development of space transportation system is proposed. The four stages of intelligent flight technology development across the world are summarized, and the development gap of the technology is analyzed. Based on this, the intelligent flight technology development framework of China’s space transportation system is formulated, a functional layer composed of “perception and monitoring”,“evaluation and decision” and “implementation and disposal” is constructed, and corresponding key technologies are defined. The influence of the intelligent flight technology on the overall design criteria and process of the top layer is analyzed. Finally, the development of China’s intelligent flight technology is prospected.

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  • Research Progress and Prospect of the Hypersonic Flight Vehicle Control Technology
  • ZHANG Yuan, HUANG Xu, LU Kunfeng, BAI Wenyan, HUANG Wanwei
  • 2022, 43 (7): 866-879. doi: 10.3873/j.issn.1000-1328.2022.07.003
  • Abstract ( 471 ) PDF (4980KB)( 619 )
    Aiming at the difficulties of a class of hypersonic flight vehicle (HFV) involving variable configurations, the engineering application requirements are analyzed, and the research progress of several typical nonlinear control methods is summarized. Firstly, the sources and characteristics of several common research models of hypersonic flight vehicle are summarized. Secondly, based on the actual engineering requirements, the control difficulties and needs for the control system capability of such vehicle are analyzed. Furthermore, the current status of several typical nonlinear control methods and intelligent control methods for hypersonic flight vehicle are summarized, and the frameworks of various control schemes are given. Finally, some problems and directions for further research are discussed for the HFV control with diversified mission forms and complicated environment in the future.
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  • Data driven Anomaly Analysis Method of Launch Vehicle Oxygen Turbopump
  • WANG Guan, WANG Jingyu, LIU Qiaozhen, SONG Zhengyu
  • 2022, 43 (7): 964-973. doi: 10.3873/j.issn.1000-1328.2022.07.013
  • Abstract ( 420 ) PDF (2428KB)( 205 )
    Based on fuzzy clustering and LSTM network, a data driven anomaly analysis method of launch vehicle engine oxygen turbopump data is proposed. Firstly, fuzzy clustering is used to pre classify the data samples with complex working conditions and incomplete labels to obtain complete labels and analyze the feature contribution, which lays a foundation for feature screening and training of LSTM network. The LSTM network is used to predict the data of the oxygen turbopump, and the average error between the predicted results and the original data is calculated. Then the threshold criterion calculated by the non parametric threshold calculation method is used to determine whether the turbopump is abnormal. Finally, the fault detection and alarm driven by the oxygen turbopump data are realized, and the accuracy is improved by 7% compared with the red line threshold detection method.
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  • Integrated Optimization Design Method of Satellite Overall System and Attitude Control
  • CHEN Xiaoqian, CHEN Xianqi, CAO Lu, ZHANG Xiang, YAO Wen
  • 2023, 44 (4): 465-475. doi: 10.3873/j.issn.1000-1328.2023.04.001
  • Abstract ( 371 ) HTML ( 67 ) PDF (2752KB)( 368 )

    Aiming at the problems of iterative design inefficiency, performance limitation and the design redundancy that are caused by the independent traditional satellite overall design of control process, an integrated optimization design method of satellite overall system and the attitude control is proposed. Based on the traditional satellite multidisciplinary design optimization (MDO) model considering the orbit, structure, power and propulsion subsystems, the satellite attitude control simulation in the application mission is incorporated into the satellite multidisciplinary analysis process in order to implement an accurate analysis of coupling effects between satellite overall design and attitude control, and perform a comprehensive evaluation on the complete mission pay-back. In this way, the integrated optimization of the satellite overall system and control process can be accomplished. Finally, by taking one agile Earth observing satellite for application research, it is demonstrated the attitude control process has a great influence on the final satellite overall design solution. Besides, the integrated optimization method generates better overall design solution with better design performance and less design redundancy than the traditional MDO method, which verifies the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed integrated optimization design method.

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  • Joint Optimal Control Technology of Launch Vehicle Flight Load
  • YUAN He, LI Jinglin, SONG Zhengyu, ZHAO Yongzhi, XU Shanshu, ZENG Yaoxiang
  • 2022, 43 (10): 1291-1301. doi: 10.3873/j.issn.1000-1328.2022.10.002
  • Abstract ( 343 ) PDF (2381KB)( 219 )
    The launch probability of the modular launch vehicle is too low due to the mismatch between the flight load and the bearing capacity. To solve this problem, a joint optimization control method for lunch vehicle’s flight load based on ballistic wind correction, engine throttling, active deloading and refining of transverse dynamic load is proposed. With the constraint of vehicle body bearing capacity, this method joints multiple load control technologies to design a launch vehicle reversely for the purpose of improving launch probability.Taking the first flight of the Long March 8 launch vehicle as an example, this technology has successfully increased the launch probability from 33% in the initial stage of development to 83%.
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  • Design and Verification of the Inchworm like Mars Rover
  • ZHANG Wangjun, DANG Zhaolong, TAO Zhuo, JIA Yang, CHEN Baichao, PAN Dong
  • 2022, 43 (9): 1143-1151. doi: 10.3873/j.issn.1000-1328.2022.09.002
  • Abstract ( 342 ) PDF (6013KB)( 253 )
    Aiming at the problems that the traditional passive suspension rover may have in the complex terrain movement of Mars, the inchworm like rover is designed, including subsidence and escape, hill climbing, bottom support and wheel lift design. The key parameters of the moving system of the inchworm like rover were identified, and the key parameter values of different lifting heights of the rover and the displacement value of one inchworm movement period are calculated. The results show that the inchworm like rover can solve the above problems of passive suspension rover. Ground tests and flight tests have been carried out on the designed inchworm like rover, and verified the ability of wheel sinkage and extrication, obstacle crossing and slope climbing. As an example of application of the imitated inchworm rover, the Mars rover Zhurong has successfully undergone flight tests, and its smooth operation on the surface of Mars shows that the design measures of the inchworm like rover are effective.
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  • Systems Engineering Technology for Launch Coefficient Improvement
  • WANG Xiaojun
  • 2023, 44 (3): 322-333. doi: 10.3873/j.issn.1000-1328.2023.03.002
  • Abstract ( 318 ) HTML ( 56 ) PDF (5610KB)( 504 )

    In order to improve the launch coefficient as the goal, a systems engineering technology is proposed. Combined with the design object, the overall multi-level design process and optimization object are sorted out from the four aspects of design concept, constraint boundary, design method, and identification return, to build the overall system of technologies. Taking the system as the traction, combined with the development practice of the new generation of launch vehicles, the research process and application effects of some of the technologies such as safety margin shooting, active environmental control, multi-disciplinary joint optimization, and propellant residue identification are summarized. At the same time, the direction of follow-up and continuous research is pointed out, which is of great significance to support the improvement of the launch coefficient.

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  • Review on Modeling and Control Methods of Morphing Vehicle
  • WANG Peng, CHEN Haolan, BAO Cunyu, TANG Guojian
  • 2022, 43 (7): 853-865. doi: 10.3873/j.issn.1000-1328.2022.07.002
  • Abstract ( 276 ) PDF (2093KB)( 293 )
    The development status, aerodynamic modeling, dynamic modeling and control methods of morphing vehicle are reviewed. Firstly, the definition and deformation requirements of morphing vehicle are described, and then the technical advantages are sorted out from four aspects. The characteristics and development status of various vehicle deformation technologies are analyzed and summarized in detail according to different wing deformation modes. The aerodynamic mechanism of the deformed vehicle and the fixed shape vehicle is compared and analyzed, and the dynamics modeling methods of the deformed vehicle are sorted out, and the characteristics of each method are summarized. The characteristics and difficulties of flight control are analyzed in combination with those of deformed vehicle, and the research progress of various kinds of deformed vehicle control is described in detail. Finally, the development trends of morphing vehicle are summarized: deepen basic theory and technology research, developing towards intelligent direction from all aspects of material, structure and control, and finally realizing engineering, autonomous and intelligent application of morphing vehicle.
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  • Adaptive Powered Descent Initiation of Rocket Return Guidance
  • YUAN Han, WANG Xiaojun, MOU Yu, ZHANG Hongjian, ZHANG Puzhuo
  • 2022, 43 (7): 890-901. doi: 10.3873/j.issn.1000-1328.2022.07.005
  • Abstract ( 273 ) PDF (2747KB)( 252 )
    To solve the problem of vertical return landing of reusable rocket, an adaptive fuel optimal powered descent initiation(PDI) approach is proposed. Firstly, two analytical forms are used to describe the profiles of the thrust and the angle of attack for the fuel optimal powered descent trajectory of the fuel optimal PDI state. In these forms, the angle of attack profile is determined by the current state, the thrust profile only depends on one unknown variable. Secondly, the PDI state is determined by predicting the powered descent trajectory with the above analytical profiles. The terminal position constraint is relaxed to solve the unknown variable of the thrust profile. The predicted trajectory meets the terminal position constraint means that the current state is close to the fuel optimal PDI state. The above strategy simplifies the problem of determining the fuel optimal PDI state into the problem of solving the single unknown variable, so as to solve the problem quickly. Finally, numerical simulations demonstrate the proposed approach is numerically stable and efficient, and achieves comparable fuel efficiency with numerical optimization approaches.
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  • Bio inspired Varistructured Space Intelligent Perception Network Technologies
  • WANG Chenliang, GUO Kang, ZHU Yukai, YUAN Yuan, YU Xiang, QIAO Jianzhong, WANG Xiaojun, GUO Lei
  • 2023, 44 (1): 1-8. doi: 10.3873/j.issn.1000-1328.2023.01.001
  • Abstract ( 267 ) PDF (580KB)( 246 )
    From the perception function and behavior of bio inspired cluster systems, some frontier scientific problems are proposed for space perception networks, including the design of bio inspired varistructured heterogeneous distributed intelligent perception networks, autonomous maneuver and alignment of single satellites, and cooperative relative measurement and control of constellations. In disturbance and confrontation environment, the survival intelligence requirement of space perception networks is to retain the varistructured network, heterogeneous distributed perception and coordinated control of different nodes. From the perspectives of disturbance rejection, fault tolerance and energy saving, safety, green and immune characteristics of intelligent perception network in the future are proposed. Based on the design of varistructured heterogeneous distributed constellations, bio inspired space intelligent perception networks aim to realize multi source information fusion and intelligent coordination of the eyes, ears, brain, body and cluster of constellations, so as to improve the intelligent coordination ability as well as the ability of awareness, understanding, prediction and flexible processing for targets and situation.
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  • Optimization Method of Load Design on the Interface of Launch Vehicle and Spacecraft
  • HE Wei, ZENG Yaoxiang, LIU Hui
  • 2023, 44 (3): 368-378. doi: 10.3873/j.issn.1000-1328.2023.03.006
  • Abstract ( 260 ) HTML ( 22 ) PDF (4406KB)( 309 )

    Based on the dynamics theory, a theoretical model of dynamic internal force is proposed to verify the major factors which affect the dynamics internal force in the interface of rocket and spacecraft, and the changing trend of the dynamic internal force with different factors is analyzed. Then,based on a real rocket configuration and corresponding external excitation, by designing the combination set of payload mass, center of mass height and fundamental frequency parameters, the dynamics coupling analysis of the spacecraft and the vehicle is carried out, and an equivalent acceleration distribution database of the transverse center of mass is built. Combined with the distribution law of theoretical analysis, the equivalent acceleration of the centroid of coupled analysis is classified and statistically analyzed, and a feasible fine design method of the dynamic internal force is established. This design method can be applied to China’s next-generation launch vehicles, and can effectively reduce the load design condition in the interface of the vehicle and spacecraft, so it is of great significance in the aerospace engineering.

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  • Autonomous & Controllable Simulation Technology for the Next-generation Solid Launch Vehicles
  • ZHANG Bing, WU Wantong, SHEN Zhi, YIN Yuhui, CHEN Zedong, GAO Bo
  • 2023, 44 (3): 348-357. doi: 10.3873/j.issn.1000-1328.2023.03.004
  • Abstract ( 256 ) HTML ( 36 ) PDF (5882KB)( 298 )

    In view of the problems of high cost and long development cycle caused by wind tunnel tests in aerodynamic design of the solid launch vehicle, simulations are incorporated into the rocket development workflow through the extensive application of an autonomous and controllable industrial software by the China Academy of Launch Vehicle Technology, and ground tests are greatly reduced to improve design efficiency. Many technical problems, such as the special aerodynamic characteristics of large-head-to-neck-ratio fairing, have been overcome. Focusing on the development of the SD-3 rocket, a majority of wind tunnel measurement are replaced by numerical simulations. The important roles of the simulation algorithms for the engineering design of aerodynamics, convective heat transfer and pressure fluctuation are elaborated, which provides reference for the development roadmap and strategic planning of the digital transformation of China’s next-generation launch vehicles.

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  • Trajectory Reachable Envelope Analysis of Launch Vehicle under Thrust Failure and Uncertainties
  • LI Chaobing, BAO Weimin, LI Zhongkui, CHENG Xiaoming, WEI Caisheng
  • 2023, 44 (1): 25-33. doi: 10.3873/j.issn.1000-1328.2023.01.003
  • Abstract ( 244 ) PDF (2502KB)( 213 )
    A state transition tensor (STT)based trajectory reachable envelope analysis method is proposed in this paper for the launch vehicle under uncertain thrust failures. First, the motion model of launch vehicle under thrust drop failure is introduced. Then, by constructing the trajectory replanning problem, the sequential quadratic programming method is employed to obtain the replanned trajectory without considering the uncertainties of thrust failures. Furthermore, the uncertainty propagation model is constructed by linear covariance, and the model is linearized. The trajectory reachable envelope analysis method of launch vehicle is then proposed based on STT method. Finally, numerical examples are organized to show that the trajectory reachable envelope can be analyzed and obtained quantitatively by the proposed method compared with the monte carlo simuclations.
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