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  • Summary and Future Development of On board Information Fusion for Multi satellite Collaborative Observation
  • HE You, YAO Li bo, LI Gang, LIU Yu, YANG Dong, LI Wen feng
  • 2021, 42 (1): 1-10. doi: 10.3873/j.issn.1000-1328.2021.01.001
  • Abstract ( 1543 ) PDF (3941KB)( 1226 )
    On board information fusion for multi satellite which is based on spatial computing mode can improve the satellitescapability such as the accuracy of detection, the confidence of recognition, the precision of position and the coverage of spatial temporal for disaster monitoring, maritime surveillance and other emergent or continuous persistent observing situations. Firstly, the necessity of on board information fusion is analyzed. Secondly, the on board processing developments are summarized and the existing problems are discussed. And thirdly, the key technology and concepts of on board information fusion are studied in the fields of target feature representation, target association, feature level fusion, autonomous mission planning and other issues. Finally the future developments of on board information fusion are studied and discussed.
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  • The Application of Aerodynamic Coefficients Prediction Technique via Artificial Intelligence Method to Rocket First Stage Landing Area Control Project
  • DU Tao, XU Chen zhou, WANG Guo hui, GONG Yu kun, HE Wei, MOU Yu, LI Zhou yang, SHEN Dan, CHENG Xing, GAO Jia yi, HAN Zhong hua
  • 2021, 42 (1): 61-73. doi: 10.3873/j.issn.1000-1328.2021.01.007
  • Abstract ( 639 ) PDF (5877KB)( 550 )
    A novel approach of predicting aerodynamic data via artificial intelligence technique is proposed in this article. Based on wind tunnel tests of partial test states, combined with several CFD results, machine learning via Kriging model is used to predict the whole aerodynamic characteristics to shorten the development cycle and reduce the expensive wind tunnel tests as many as possible. After solving several key technical problems such as the selection of correlation functions, hyper parameters training, data verification and application of man in loop technique, the complete set of aerodynamic data was obtained successfully and used to the control law design in the rocket first stage landing area control project with grid fins. The correctness of the proposed method was validated by a flight test on 26th July, 2019, which was carried out successfully for the first time in China. At the end, the grading of technology maturity degree for the artificial intelligence technique is presented to evaluate application to aerodynamic engineering design problems.
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  • Review and Prospects of Development of Space On orbit  Manufacturing Technology
  • YANG Xing wen, HAN Jing tao, LIU Jing, ZHANG Cong fa, LIANG Jin chao
  • 2021, 42 (11): 1343-1354. doi: 10.3873/j.issn.1000-1328.2021.11.001
  • Abstract ( 517 ) PDF (8140KB)( 823 )
    In this paper mainly starting from the development background and practical significance of space on orbit manufacturing technology, the development of on orbit manufacturing technology is classified, summarized and commented from the four aspects of on orbit 3D printing, on orbit welding, on orbit strip based plastic forming, and on orbit in situ manufacturing. A series of bottleneck problems encountered in the current development process are pointed out, and the future development trends are predicted. Combining with the successful experiences of foreign on orbit manufacturing technology, this article finally gives out the areas that need to be paid attention and the direction of efforts in the development of China’s on orbit manufacturing technology. It is expected to provide a useful reference for the layout of China’s space on orbit manufacturing technology.

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  • Research on Multibody Dynamic Modeling and Simulation Technology for Launch Vehicles

  • LI Dong, YANG Yun fei, HU Peng xiang, ZHANG Huan, CHENG Xing
  • 2021, 42 (2): 141-149. doi: 10.3873/j.issn.1000-1328.2021.02.001
  • Abstract ( 465 ) PDF (2888KB)( 388 )
    The new generation launch vehicles are encountered with the strong coupling problem between the structural dynamics and the control system, which would influence the flight stability. To address this challenge, a modeling and simulation approach based on the Multibody dynamic virtual prototype is presented so as to solve the verifying difficulty of the attitude dynamic model through ground tests. In this paper, the basic idea of applying the multibody virtual prototype in the attitude dynamics analysis of a launch vehicle is described firstly; then the difference between the multibody dynamics model and the traditional rocket attitude dynamics model is analyzed, and the significance of introducing the multibody simulation technology is pointed out; and finally, aiming at the new generation launch vehicles, a multibody virtual prototype modeling method is proposed and implemented, and the correctness of the new generation launch vehicles attitude dynamics model as well as the control parameters is simulated and tested. The research of this paper shows that the multibody dynamic virtual prototype simulation is an effective method to solve the complex dynamic coupling problems in space vehicle system design.
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  • Technological Innovation and Development Prospect of Aerospace Vehicle
  • WANG Chang qing
  • 2021, 42 (7): 807-819. doi: 10.3873/j.issn.1000-1328.2021.07.001
  • Abstract ( 414 ) PDF (22394KB)( 667 )
    Firstly this paper introduces the development history and current situation of foreign aerospace vehicle technology. According to the world development experiences and the aerospace vehicle’s flight features, we raise the basic science problems of aerospace vehicle technology, and propose the solutions of aerospace vehicle technology based on current technological level. In conclusion, the development direction of aerospace vehicle technology is elucidated. It is generally known that the long term future of mankind must be in outer space. Developing a new generation of space transportation system is not only the requirement of large scale exploitation and utilization of outer space, but also will open up a new era of outer space. 

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  • Flight Mission Planning for Solar System Boundary Exploration

  • TIAN Bai yi, WANG Da yi, ZHANG Xiang yu, ZHOU Wen yan, ZHU An wen, HUANG Mei li, WANG Ying
  • 2021, 42 (3): 284-294. doi: 10.3873/j.issn.1000-1328.2021.03.003
  • Abstract ( 394 ) PDF (5888KB)( 799 )
    Mission planning of interplanetary multi objective flyby is carried out for solar system boundary exploration, and the optimization of low thrust interplanetary transfer orbit combined with planet gravity assistance is completed. Based on the above research, the interplanetary flight schemes for the exploration of the tip and tail of the heliosphere are given. The results show that a probe launched during 2024-2025 and 2027-2030 can arrive at about 100 AU from the solar center before 2049, and touch the nasal tip and tail of the heliosphere. Among them, the tip explorer is located in the central region of the nose tip when it flies to the distance of 100 AU, which can effectively complement the Voyager 1 and Voyager 2. The mission planning method used in this paper can provide the basis for the autonomous mission planning technology of solar system boundary exploration, and the relevant research results can provide valuable reference for the implementation of the first solar system boundary exploration mission in China in the future.
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  • An Intelligent Prediction Method of Hypersonic Glide Vehicle Trajectory
  • ZHANG Jun biao, XIONG Jia jun, LAN Xu hui, XI Qiu shi, XIA Liang, ZHANG Kai
  • 2022, 43 (4): 413-422. doi: 10.3873/j.issn.1000-1328.2022.04.003
  • Abstract ( 386 ) PDF (3021KB)( 260 )
    In order to solve the problem of high maneuverability and difficult trajectory prediction of hypersonic glide vehicle (HGV), an intelligent trajectory prediction method of HGV based on ensemble empirical mode decomposition and attention long short term memory network is proposed by selecting the aerodynamic acceleration as the prediction parameter. Firstly, the maneuvering characteristics and the aerodynamic variation law of HGV are analyzed based on the six degree of freedom motion equation. The dynamic tracking model is established to estimate the aerodynamic acceleration in real time. Secondly, the estimated aerodynamic acceleration is decomposed and reconstructed by using ensemble empirical mode decomposition to weaken the influence of noise and avoid interference to the prediction model. Finally, the denoised aerodynamic acceleration data used to train the attention long short term memory network. Then the future aerodynamic acceleration data predicted and the future trajectory of HGV is reconstructed to achieve online trajectory prediction. The simulation results show that the method can effectively predict the maneuver trajectory of HGV with high prediction accuracy and good stability.
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  • Review on Input Saturation in the Spacecraft Attitude Control
  • WANG Liang yue, GUO Yan ning, MA Guang fu, LIU Wei lin
  • 2021, 42 (1): 11-21. doi: 10.3873/j.issn.1000-1328.2021.01.002
  • Abstract ( 340 ) PDF (1327KB)( 244 )
    The existing methods to solve the control input saturation problem are summarized and divided into three main technical approaches. Then systematically analyze and compare the design ideas, mathematical forms and working characteristics of each methods. Summarize and analyze the effectiveness and area of application of the three technical approaches mainly including as follow in order to provide effective support for practical tasks. 1) Control law considering saturation as a whole: including saturation function, limiting function, switching function, anti saturation control, etc. Due to the high efficiency of actuator and complex form, it is suitable for the fast attitude maneuver missions of spacecraft with high computing power and adjusting time. 2) Control law considering saturation every item separately, including PD type control, backstepping control, etc. This technical approach has simple design and insufficiently utilization of the actuator which is suitable for attitude regulation with no time requirement or low cost small satellites. 3) Optimization considering saturation constraints: including time/energy/fuel optimal control and hybrid index optimal control, etc. This approach, which has high computation and dependence on accurate mathematical model, is suitable for the optimal attitude maneuvers of large spacecraft because of solving multiple constraints optimal problem.
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  • A Coplanar Regional Centralized Autonomous Navigation Algorithm for Beidou Satellites
  • LIN Xia, LIN Bao jun, LIU Ying chun, BAI Tao, WU Guo qiang
  • 2021, 42 (1): 113-121. doi: 10.3873/j.issn.1000-1328.2021.01.012
  • Abstract ( 334 ) PDF (1738KB)( 189 )
    Based on the configuration plan of BeiDou 3 satellites, a coplanar regional autonomous navigation algorithm for Beidou satellites is proposed. In the algorithm,the two way Ka ranging information collected by the co orbit satellites is designed to transmit to the main satellite by the laser inter satellite links and then with the ranging information, the main satellite can update the coplanar satellitesorbit information centralizedly. The algorithm takes full advantage of the flexible direction switching feature of Ka inter satellite links and the high speed communication feature of laser links and also overcomes the communication difficulties between different planes and direction switching weaknesses of the laser links. In addition, an intra satellite simulation environment is built to verify the accuracy and feasibility of the algorithm. The simulation results show that the regional centralized autonomous navigation algorithm can stably run in the simulation environment, and its navigation accuracy is much better than that of the distributed autonomous navigation.
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  • Research Progress and Prospect of the Hypersonic Flight Vehicle Control Technology
  • ZHANG Yuan, HUANG Xu, LU Kunfeng, BAI Wenyan, HUANG Wanwei
  • 2022, 43 (7): 866-879. doi: 10.3873/j.issn.1000-1328.2022.07.003
  • Abstract ( 326 ) PDF (4980KB)( 451 )
    Aiming at the difficulties of a class of hypersonic flight vehicle (HFV) involving variable configurations, the engineering application requirements are analyzed, and the research progress of several typical nonlinear control methods is summarized. Firstly, the sources and characteristics of several common research models of hypersonic flight vehicle are summarized. Secondly, based on the actual engineering requirements, the control difficulties and needs for the control system capability of such vehicle are analyzed. Furthermore, the current status of several typical nonlinear control methods and intelligent control methods for hypersonic flight vehicle are summarized, and the frameworks of various control schemes are given. Finally, some problems and directions for further research are discussed for the HFV control with diversified mission forms and complicated environment in the future.
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  • Data driven Anomaly Analysis Method of Launch Vehicle Oxygen Turbopump
  • WANG Guan, WANG Jingyu, LIU Qiaozhen, SONG Zhengyu
  • 2022, 43 (7): 964-973. doi: 10.3873/j.issn.1000-1328.2022.07.013
  • Abstract ( 321 ) PDF (2428KB)( 158 )
    Based on fuzzy clustering and LSTM network, a data driven anomaly analysis method of launch vehicle engine oxygen turbopump data is proposed. Firstly, fuzzy clustering is used to pre classify the data samples with complex working conditions and incomplete labels to obtain complete labels and analyze the feature contribution, which lays a foundation for feature screening and training of LSTM network. The LSTM network is used to predict the data of the oxygen turbopump, and the average error between the predicted results and the original data is calculated. Then the threshold criterion calculated by the non parametric threshold calculation method is used to determine whether the turbopump is abnormal. Finally, the fault detection and alarm driven by the oxygen turbopump data are realized, and the accuracy is improved by 7% compared with the red line threshold detection method.
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  • Research on Dual antenna GPS/MEMS-INS Deeply integrated Navigation Approach
  • LONG Teng, MU Rong jun, SU Bing zhi, CUI Nai gang
  • 2021, 42 (1): 92-102. doi: 10.3873/j.issn.1000-1328.2021.01.010
  • Abstract ( 315 ) PDF (4806KB)( 125 )
    The low cost INS/GNSS integrated navigation system is susceptible and has a larger heading error in complex environment. For solving these problems, a dual antenna GPS/MEMS INS deeply integrated navigation approach is studied. Considering the tracking characteristics of signals with different intensities, three tracking structures are designed for strong signal, weak signal and loss of lock status based on vector delay locked loop (VDLL), second order phase locked loop (PLL) and velocity aided first order PLL respectively. A practical method of estimating signal intensity is presented to prevent channels with large error from participating in the calculation of navigation filter, and the navigation accuracy is improved. In order to ensure the heading accuracy, two antennas are used. The carrier phase difference of the two antennas is added into the measurement of the navigation filter. A phase difference measurement equation in which the pitch information is isolated is constructed by using the line of sight vector horizontal projection transformation. Vehicular navigation test shows that the designed navigation system can provide continuous and high precision navigation output in urban environment.
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  • SPH Method for Large amplitude Liquid Sloshing with Variable Mass in Liquid filled Spacecraft
  • YU Qiang, WANG Tian shu
  • 2021, 42 (1): 22-30. doi: 10.3873/j.issn.1000-1328.2021.01.003
  • Abstract ( 314 ) PDF (5520KB)( 138 )
    In this paper, based on the non inertial smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) which is a Lagrangian mesh less method, a numerical method regarding outlet boundary conditions is proposed to limit the flux at the outlet boundary, which is an extension of the methods proposed to the treatment of open boundary conditions based on the buffer layers. According to the spacecraft attitude information and liquid filled ratio at the current time, the SPH solver can calculate the sloshing force and moment exerted by variable mass liquid against the spacecraft during the dynamic time step. The SPH solver can be embedded in the closed loop dynamics simulation of the whole spacecraft. Finally, in order to verify the validity of the method, the results from the SPH method are compared with those obtained by a commercial computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software, Flow 3d for different sloshing cases.
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  • Skip Entry Trajectory Optimization of Lunar Return Vehicles

  • ZHAO Ji song, WANG Jiang hua, WANG Bo qiao, ZHANG Jin ming, ZHU Hang biao
  • 2021, 42 (2): 211-219. doi: 10.3873/j.issn.1000-1328.2021.02.009
  • Abstract ( 306 ) PDF (4478KB)( 249 )
    A high precision approach for the skip entry trajectory optimization of lunar return vehicles based on an adaptive sparse collocation method is presented. Firstly, the whole skip entry trajectory is optimized by using an adaptive sparse collocation method; then, the numerical integration of the state dynamic equations is carried out according to the obtained optimal control; when the integration reaches the highest point of the skip trajectory, the re-optimization of the secondary entry trajectory is carried out with the state values that are obtained by the integration as new initial conditions. The numerical simulation results show that: 1) the optimization accuracy is significantly improved when the secondary optimization is used and otherwise the accuracy is poor and the terminal errors are large; 2) the secondary optimization that is performed at the highest point of the skip trajectory is a quasi real time optimization which has potential applications in the field of skip reentry trajectory guidance.
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  • Integrated Guidance and Control for Missile Using Deep Reinforcement Learning
  • PEI Pei, HE Shao ming, WANG Jiang, LIN De fu
  • 2021, 42 (10): 1293-1304. doi: 10.3873/j.issn.1000-1328.2021.10.010
  • Abstract ( 304 ) PDF (12346KB)( 339 )
    This paper proposes an integrated guidance and control algorithm based on deep reinforcement learning technique. Differently from the traditional integrated guidance and control algorithm and designing the guidance loop and control loop separately, the fin deflection command of proposed integrated guidance and control algorithm is given by the agent through the observation states of missile. The agent is generated by the deep reinforcement learning. To utilize the deep reinforcement learning technique in integrated guidance and control problem, we transfer the integrated guidance and control problem into a Markovian decision process that enables the application of reinforcement learning theory. A heuristic way is utilized to shape a proper reward function that has tradeoff between guidance accuracy, energy consumption and interception time. The state of the art deep deterministic policy gradient algorithm is utilized to learn an action policy that maps the observation states to a fin deflection command. Extensive empirical numerical simulations are performed to validate the effectiveness and robustness of proposed integrated guidance and control algorithm.

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  • Spacecraft Intelligent Autonomous Control Technology  Toward Uncertain Environment
  • YUAN Li
  • 2021, 42 (7): 839-849. doi: 10.3873/j.issn.1000-1328.2021.07.004
  • Abstract ( 302 ) PDF (1652KB)( 401 )
    This paper analyzes and summarizes the research status of autonomous observation technology, autonomous decision making technology and control technology involved in intelligent autonomous control systems, and also analyzes the current technical problems of spacecraft control systems in dealing with uncertain environments. Considering the needs of future space missions, a new closed loop structure of “Observation evolution decision action” (OEDA) is proposed for spacecraft, and the characteristics and functions are discussed. The theories and methods involved in observation, evolution, decision making and control action in the OEDA control framework are further given. Finally, the key scientific problems that need to be solved in the practical applications and further development of the control framework are analyzed. 

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  • Spacecraft Continuous Dynamic Obstacle Avoidance Trajectory Planning with Optimal Energy

  • KANG Guo hua, ZHANG Han, WEI Jian yu, WU Jia qi, ZHANG Lei
  • 2021, 42 (3): 305-313. doi: 10.3873/j.issn.1000-1328.2021.03.005
  • Abstract ( 301 ) PDF (4815KB)( 175 )
    Aiming at the problem that the traditional pulse obstacle avoidance algorithm has strong dependence on the instantaneous thrust and large fuel consumption in the applications of spacecraft trajectory planning, a continuous dynamic obstacle avoidance algorithm with optimal energy is proposed. The algorithm firstly establishes a model of relative motion with optimal energy based on a linear relative motion equation and a finite time energy optimal model, and at the same time verifies the optimality of the model. Secondly, it introduces the y direction motion error offset of the dynamic obstacles and the normal distribution probability into the collision avoidance safe distance model, corrects the range of tracking spacecraft dynamic obstacle avoidance, determines the length of the safe distance vector, and enhances the reliability of avoiding obstacles. Finally, the angle between the obstacle speed vector and the tracker spacecraft speed vector is used to determine the direction of the dynamic obstacle avoidance point, which reduces the fuel consumption and improves the effectiveness and accuracy of the obstacle avoidance. Through simulation verification, the algorithm can adaptively select the obstacle avoidance points and effectively avoid the dynamic obstacles; and the working fluid fuel consumption is small, effectively extending the spacecraft on orbit life.
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  • Dynamic Analysis of Spinning Deployment of Space Web
  • QIN Zhi wei, LIU Zhen, SUN Guo peng, QI Yu feng
  • 2021, 42 (1): 41-49. doi: 10.3873/j.issn.1000-1328.2021.01.005
  • Abstract ( 298 ) PDF (5459KB)( 840 )
    In the launching scheme of using a pyrotechnic device to project a space web, there are some problems such as the large shock between the space web system and the satellite platform, the short maintenance time of the web configuration after deployed, etc. This paper presents a scheme for unfolding a space web through four controllable rotary tubes to overcome the above problems. An analytical model based on the Lagrange dynamics equation and finite element (FE) models using the central difference algorithm are developed and compared together. The results of the angular velocity of the rotary tubes and the length of the web arms are very consistent when the web arms are analyzed with the analytical model and the FE model, which proves that the simulation model construction method is effective. The topology and control strategy of the space webs are optimized under the FE web model, so that the state after deployment of the space webs can be maintained for a long time.
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