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  • Several Engineering and Technical Issues in the Development of Cislunar Space
  • ZHANG Yulin, LIU Hongwei, JIANG Chao, GAO Yongfei, CHENG Zilong, LI Taibo, HU Ruijun, ZHOU Hao
  • 2023, 44 (4): 612-632. doi: 10.3873/j.issn.1000-1328.2023.04.015
  • Abstract ( 1624 ) HTML ( 71 ) PDF (9693KB)( 817 )

    In view of the key engineering and technical issues in the development of cislunar space, studies are carried out from the perspectives of cislunar space transportation, resources of the Moon and small celestial bodies, lunar robots, and the cislunar space economic system. Cislunar space transportation can be divided into phases such as round-trip between the Earth and the orbit, Earth-Moon transfer, and lunar landing and ascent. It is necessary to develop different vehicles, transportation modes and reuse schemes according to the environmental characteristics of different phases, and consider the integrated design of the space station near the Earth and manned lunar exploration. The abundant resources of the Moon and small near-Earth objects are the material basis for the development of cislunar space. The geostationary orbit is an ideal industrial park in cislunar space. The vacuum, low gravity, low temperature and sufficient solar energy in lunar space facilitate the development of electrification transportation such as magnetic levitation, space elevator and skyhook. Facing the harsh lunar environment and scarce human resources, the lunar robot will play a leading and main role in infrastructure construction, astronaut accompaniment and assistance, human-machine cooperation. The development of cislunar space is not only for manned landing on the Moon, but also for the establishment of cislunar economic system. It will promote the national interests to extend from the land and the sea to cislunar space, promote the development of space industry from the earth to cislunar space, and accelerate the progress of human society from the earth civilization to the solar system civilization.

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  • Development and Key Technologies of Long March 8 Family: China’s Next-generation Medium-lift Launchers
  • SONG Zhengyu, LIU Lidong, CHEN Xiaofei, XU Shanshu, WU Yitian
  • 2023, 44 (4): 476-485. doi: 10.3873/j.issn.1000-1328.2023.04.002
  • Abstract ( 869 ) HTML ( 107 ) PDF (5611KB)( 791 )

    The development of the Long March 8 (LM-8) series of launch vehicles is reviewed, which is designed to fill the gap of the payload capability of 3 to 4.5 tons to the sun-synchronous orbits (SSO), and to derive the no-side-booster configuration covering the payload capability of less than 3 tons, thus taking the main role of the madium-lift launchers in the launch market to constitute China’s next-generation of launch vehicles. On this basis, research and development of the LM-8 variants is being carried out to further improve the performance and shorten the launch period. The key technologies of the LM-8 with fundamental configurations are introduced, and the innovations of the upgraded version being developed are discussed, including the closed-loop self-pressurization for the hydrogen tank, the hydrogen and oxygen common bottom tank with a diameter of 3.35 meter and PMI sandwiches, etc. In line with the construction of the Wenchang commercial launch site, the future development of Long March 8 series is prospected.

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  • Review and Prospects of Development of Space On orbit  Manufacturing Technology
  • YANG Xing wen, HAN Jing tao, LIU Jing, ZHANG Cong fa, LIANG Jin chao
  • 2021, 42 (11): 1343-1354. doi: 10.3873/j.issn.1000-1328.2021.11.001
  • Abstract ( 693 ) PDF (8140KB)( 930 )
    In this paper mainly starting from the development background and practical significance of space on orbit manufacturing technology, the development of on orbit manufacturing technology is classified, summarized and commented from the four aspects of on orbit 3D printing, on orbit welding, on orbit strip based plastic forming, and on orbit in situ manufacturing. A series of bottleneck problems encountered in the current development process are pointed out, and the future development trends are predicted. Combining with the successful experiences of foreign on orbit manufacturing technology, this article finally gives out the areas that need to be paid attention and the direction of efforts in the development of China’s on orbit manufacturing technology. It is expected to provide a useful reference for the layout of China’s space on orbit manufacturing technology.

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  • Systems Engineering Technology for Overall Performance Improvement of Manned Lunar Exploration
  • ZHANG Hailian
  • 2023, 44 (9): 1267-1279. doi: 10.3873/j.issn.1000-1328.2023.09.001
  • Abstract ( 673 ) HTML ( 40 ) PDF (6389KB)( 1305 )

    Manned lunar exploration missions require thousands of tons of launch vehicles to deliver astronauts and a small amount of payload to the lunar surface. To improve the overall performance of manned lunar exploration missions, a systematic analysis is conducted at the overall level, including the design concepts, design methods, model optimization, and data correction. The proposed overall technologies include probability-based overall design, integrated design of spacecraft and rocket, optimization design based on digital models, and overall performance improvement based on measured data correction. Based on the practice of the overall design of manned lunar exploration missions, the application effects of these technologies are summarized, and the direction for future research is pointed out. These technologies play an important role in improving the overall performance of manned lunar exploration and maximizing the efficiency.

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  • An Intelligent Prediction Method of Hypersonic Glide Vehicle Trajectory
  • ZHANG Jun biao, XIONG Jia jun, LAN Xu hui, XI Qiu shi, XIA Liang, ZHANG Kai
  • 2022, 43 (4): 413-422. doi: 10.3873/j.issn.1000-1328.2022.04.003
  • Abstract ( 642 ) PDF (3021KB)( 420 )
    In order to solve the problem of high maneuverability and difficult trajectory prediction of hypersonic glide vehicle (HGV), an intelligent trajectory prediction method of HGV based on ensemble empirical mode decomposition and attention long short term memory network is proposed by selecting the aerodynamic acceleration as the prediction parameter. Firstly, the maneuvering characteristics and the aerodynamic variation law of HGV are analyzed based on the six degree of freedom motion equation. The dynamic tracking model is established to estimate the aerodynamic acceleration in real time. Secondly, the estimated aerodynamic acceleration is decomposed and reconstructed by using ensemble empirical mode decomposition to weaken the influence of noise and avoid interference to the prediction model. Finally, the denoised aerodynamic acceleration data used to train the attention long short term memory network. Then the future aerodynamic acceleration data predicted and the future trajectory of HGV is reconstructed to achieve online trajectory prediction. The simulation results show that the method can effectively predict the maneuver trajectory of HGV with high prediction accuracy and good stability.
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  • Development Prospects of Intelligent Flight Technology of China’s Space Transportation System
  • WU Yansheng
  • 2023, 44 (3): 313-321. doi: 10.3873/j.issn.1000-1328.2023.03.001
  • Abstract ( 594 ) HTML ( 104 ) PDF (3133KB)( 768 )

    Aiming at the problem of improving the flight reliability of the space transportation system based on the reliability limit of products, a technical approach of breaking through the application of intelligent flight technology to support the higher-quality development of space transportation system is proposed. The four stages of intelligent flight technology development across the world are summarized, and the development gap of the technology is analyzed. Based on this, the intelligent flight technology development framework of China’s space transportation system is formulated, a functional layer composed of “perception and monitoring”,“evaluation and decision” and “implementation and disposal” is constructed, and corresponding key technologies are defined. The influence of the intelligent flight technology on the overall design criteria and process of the top layer is analyzed. Finally, the development of China’s intelligent flight technology is prospected.

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  • Research Progress and Prospect of the Hypersonic Flight Vehicle Control Technology
  • ZHANG Yuan, HUANG Xu, LU Kunfeng, BAI Wenyan, HUANG Wanwei
  • 2022, 43 (7): 866-879. doi: 10.3873/j.issn.1000-1328.2022.07.003
  • Abstract ( 528 ) PDF (4980KB)( 709 )
    Aiming at the difficulties of a class of hypersonic flight vehicle (HFV) involving variable configurations, the engineering application requirements are analyzed, and the research progress of several typical nonlinear control methods is summarized. Firstly, the sources and characteristics of several common research models of hypersonic flight vehicle are summarized. Secondly, based on the actual engineering requirements, the control difficulties and needs for the control system capability of such vehicle are analyzed. Furthermore, the current status of several typical nonlinear control methods and intelligent control methods for hypersonic flight vehicle are summarized, and the frameworks of various control schemes are given. Finally, some problems and directions for further research are discussed for the HFV control with diversified mission forms and complicated environment in the future.
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  • Deep Reinforcement Learning Guidance Law for Intercepting Endo atmospheric Maneuvering Targets
  • QIU Xiaoqi, GAO Changsheng, JING Wuxing
  • 2022, 43 (5): 685-695. doi: 10.3873/j.issn.1000-1328.2022.05.013
  • Abstract ( 487 ) PDF (3376KB)( 355 )
    Aiming at the problem of intercepting endo atmospheric high speed maneuvering targets, a deep reinforcement learning guidance law is proposed based on the twin delayed deep deterministic policy gradient(TD3) algorithm. It directly maps the engagement information to the commanded acceleration of the interceptor, which is an end to-end, model free guidance strategy. Firstly, the engagement kinematic model of both sides is described as a Markov decision process suitable for deep reinforcement learning algorithms. After that, a complete deep reinforcement learning guidance algorithm is constructed by reasonably designing the engagement scenarios, action space, state space and network structure required for algorithm training. The reward shaping and random initialization are introduced to construct a complete algorithm. The simulation results show that, compared with the proportional guidance and augmented proportional guidance laws, the proposed guidance strategy can reduce the requirement for mid course guidance while having smaller miss distances. It has good robustness and generalization ability, with less computational burden that makes it eligible to run on missile borne computers.
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  • Integrated Optimization Design Method of Satellite Overall System and Attitude Control
  • CHEN Xiaoqian, CHEN Xianqi, CAO Lu, ZHANG Xiang, YAO Wen
  • 2023, 44 (4): 465-475. doi: 10.3873/j.issn.1000-1328.2023.04.001
  • Abstract ( 470 ) HTML ( 71 ) PDF (2752KB)( 516 )

    Aiming at the problems of iterative design inefficiency, performance limitation and the design redundancy that are caused by the independent traditional satellite overall design of control process, an integrated optimization design method of satellite overall system and the attitude control is proposed. Based on the traditional satellite multidisciplinary design optimization (MDO) model considering the orbit, structure, power and propulsion subsystems, the satellite attitude control simulation in the application mission is incorporated into the satellite multidisciplinary analysis process in order to implement an accurate analysis of coupling effects between satellite overall design and attitude control, and perform a comprehensive evaluation on the complete mission pay-back. In this way, the integrated optimization of the satellite overall system and control process can be accomplished. Finally, by taking one agile Earth observing satellite for application research, it is demonstrated the attitude control process has a great influence on the final satellite overall design solution. Besides, the integrated optimization method generates better overall design solution with better design performance and less design redundancy than the traditional MDO method, which verifies the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed integrated optimization design method.

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  • Data driven Anomaly Analysis Method of Launch Vehicle Oxygen Turbopump
  • WANG Guan, WANG Jingyu, LIU Qiaozhen, SONG Zhengyu
  • 2022, 43 (7): 964-973. doi: 10.3873/j.issn.1000-1328.2022.07.013
  • Abstract ( 454 ) PDF (2428KB)( 225 )
    Based on fuzzy clustering and LSTM network, a data driven anomaly analysis method of launch vehicle engine oxygen turbopump data is proposed. Firstly, fuzzy clustering is used to pre classify the data samples with complex working conditions and incomplete labels to obtain complete labels and analyze the feature contribution, which lays a foundation for feature screening and training of LSTM network. The LSTM network is used to predict the data of the oxygen turbopump, and the average error between the predicted results and the original data is calculated. Then the threshold criterion calculated by the non parametric threshold calculation method is used to determine whether the turbopump is abnormal. Finally, the fault detection and alarm driven by the oxygen turbopump data are realized, and the accuracy is improved by 7% compared with the red line threshold detection method.
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  • Research Progress on Dynamics and Control of the Space Elevator
  • GUAN Yingzi, WEN Zida, WANG Xiaowei, ZHANG Feng, CUI Naigang
  • 2022, 43 (5): 537-547. doi: 10.3873/j.issn.1000-1328.2022.05.001
  • Abstract ( 423 ) PDF (1060KB)( 461 )
    The components and initial deployment of a space elevator system is briefly introduced in this work. On this basis, aiming at the complex dynamics and control problems existing both in the initial deployment and the follow up operation, the development status of dynamics and control of the space elevator system is analyzed and summarized from five aspects, including the dynamic modeling, stability, cable oscillation, cable oscillation caused by climber(s) motion and oscillation suppression, and initial deployment dynamics. Finally, further development of dynamics and control of the space elevator is summarized and prospected.

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  • Scientific Objectives and Suggestions on Landing Site Selection of Manned Lunar Exploration Engineering
  • NIU Ran, ZHANG Guang, MU Lingli, LIN Yangting, LIU Jianzhong, BO Zheng, DAI Wei, ZHANG Peng
  • 2023, 44 (9): 1280-1290. doi: 10.3873/j.issn.1000-1328.2023.09.002
  • Abstract ( 405 ) HTML ( 18 ) PDF (3876KB)( 803 )

    Focusing on cutting-edge scientific issues related to lunar exploration and applications, 9 overarching goals and 38 specific objectives for manned lunar exploration program have been proposed, leveraging China’s technical capabilities in manned spaceflight and lunar exploration, as well as its expertise in lunar and planetary science, the objectives center on scientific research, lunar-based scientific research, and resource exploration and utilization. Based on these scientific goals and trends in domestic and international manned lunar exploration landing site selection, basic principles and processes for selecting landing sites have been established. Thirty prime landing sites have been identified, and relevant factors considered in the further selection of landing sites are given, taking into account scientific value and engineering implementation conditions. These scientific objectives and landing site selection recommendations will serve as important guidance and top-level input for the design and implementation of manned lunar exploration program.

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  • Systems Engineering Technology for Launch Coefficient Improvement
  • WANG Xiaojun
  • 2023, 44 (3): 322-333. doi: 10.3873/j.issn.1000-1328.2023.03.002
  • Abstract ( 400 ) HTML ( 61 ) PDF (5610KB)( 616 )

    In order to improve the launch coefficient as the goal, a systems engineering technology is proposed. Combined with the design object, the overall multi-level design process and optimization object are sorted out from the four aspects of design concept, constraint boundary, design method, and identification return, to build the overall system of technologies. Taking the system as the traction, combined with the development practice of the new generation of launch vehicles, the research process and application effects of some of the technologies such as safety margin shooting, active environmental control, multi-disciplinary joint optimization, and propellant residue identification are summarized. At the same time, the direction of follow-up and continuous research is pointed out, which is of great significance to support the improvement of the launch coefficient.

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  • Design and Verification of the Inchworm like Mars Rover
  • ZHANG Wangjun, DANG Zhaolong, TAO Zhuo, JIA Yang, CHEN Baichao, PAN Dong
  • 2022, 43 (9): 1143-1151. doi: 10.3873/j.issn.1000-1328.2022.09.002
  • Abstract ( 395 ) PDF (6013KB)( 298 )
    Aiming at the problems that the traditional passive suspension rover may have in the complex terrain movement of Mars, the inchworm like rover is designed, including subsidence and escape, hill climbing, bottom support and wheel lift design. The key parameters of the moving system of the inchworm like rover were identified, and the key parameter values of different lifting heights of the rover and the displacement value of one inchworm movement period are calculated. The results show that the inchworm like rover can solve the above problems of passive suspension rover. Ground tests and flight tests have been carried out on the designed inchworm like rover, and verified the ability of wheel sinkage and extrication, obstacle crossing and slope climbing. As an example of application of the imitated inchworm rover, the Mars rover Zhurong has successfully undergone flight tests, and its smooth operation on the surface of Mars shows that the design measures of the inchworm like rover are effective.
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  • Round trip Transfers to Earth Moon DRO and Halo for Supporting Lunar Exploration
  • ZENG Hao, LI Zhao yu, XU Rui, HAO Ping, PENG Kun
  • 2021, 42 (12): 1483-1492. doi: 10.3873/j.issn.1000-1328.2021.12.001
  • Abstract ( 392 ) PDF (12452KB)( 375 )
    For manned lunar and deep space exploration missions in the future, the transfer design of low energy round trip circumlunar orbit and libration point in the Earth Moon system is studied, the effect of circumlunar orbit changes on key parameters such as flight time and mission fuel consumption are systematically analyzed under different three body orbits, and a search strategy for the initial value of round trip orbit design is presented. In order to solve the problem of initial value sensitivity of design variables, a differential correction algorithm is used to rapidly construct the initial transfer orbit by combining the invariant manifold with the characteristics of the libration point orbit. Considering multiple constraints such as near lunar and optimal fuel simultaneously, the round trip trajectory between the circumlunar orbit and libration point orbit is further studied through the multiple shooting method and quadratic programming algorithm, and the gradient formula of the constraint equations is deduced to improve the design efficiency. In order to analyze the characteristics of round trip orbits and verify the effectiveness of the design strategy, the relationship between the variation of parameters, such as amplitude of three body orbits, the inclination of different circumlunar orbits, and the transfer time and fuel consumption is studied. The design results have important reference significance for the design of round trip orbits and selection of parameters for the deployment of lunar exploration vehicles.

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  • Joint Optimal Control Technology of Launch Vehicle Flight Load
  • YUAN He, LI Jinglin, SONG Zhengyu, ZHAO Yongzhi, XU Shanshu, ZENG Yaoxiang
  • 2022, 43 (10): 1291-1301. doi: 10.3873/j.issn.1000-1328.2022.10.002
  • Abstract ( 383 ) PDF (2381KB)( 252 )
    The launch probability of the modular launch vehicle is too low due to the mismatch between the flight load and the bearing capacity. To solve this problem, a joint optimization control method for lunch vehicle’s flight load based on ballistic wind correction, engine throttling, active deloading and refining of transverse dynamic load is proposed. With the constraint of vehicle body bearing capacity, this method joints multiple load control technologies to design a launch vehicle reversely for the purpose of improving launch probability.Taking the first flight of the Long March 8 launch vehicle as an example, this technology has successfully increased the launch probability from 33% in the initial stage of development to 83%.
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  • Review of Guidance and Integrated Guidance and Control Methods under Terminal Angle Constraints
  • ZHAO Bin, LIANG Lecheng, JIANG Ruimin, ZHOU Jun
  • 2022, 43 (5): 563-579. doi: 10.3873/j.issn.1000-1328.2022.05.003
  • Abstract ( 369 ) PDF (1228KB)( 341 )
    Guidance methods and integrated guidance and control(IGC) methods under terminal angle constraints of guided weapons are reviewed. Firstly, several typical definitions of terminal angle constraints are compared and analyzed, and the state space models of the guidance law and IGC method design oriented to terminal angle constraints are constructed for two and three dimensional engagement scenarios. Subsequently, the current approaches involving guidance and IGC methods under terminal angle constraints are classified, concluded and compared in detail. Thirdly, the problems of multi constraint impact angle control, guidance information extraction, impact angle range estimation and cooperative guidance in the guidance and IGC methods under terminal angle constraints are prospected.
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