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  • Summary and Future Development of On board Information Fusion for Multi satellite Collaborative Observation
  • HE You, YAO Li bo, LI Gang, LIU Yu, YANG Dong, LI Wen feng
  • 2021, 42 (1): 1-10. doi: 10.3873/j.issn.1000-1328.2021.01.001
  • Abstract ( 1543 ) PDF (3941KB)( 1226 )
    On board information fusion for multi satellite which is based on spatial computing mode can improve the satellitescapability such as the accuracy of detection, the confidence of recognition, the precision of position and the coverage of spatial temporal for disaster monitoring, maritime surveillance and other emergent or continuous persistent observing situations. Firstly, the necessity of on board information fusion is analyzed. Secondly, the on board processing developments are summarized and the existing problems are discussed. And thirdly, the key technology and concepts of on board information fusion are studied in the fields of target feature representation, target association, feature level fusion, autonomous mission planning and other issues. Finally the future developments of on board information fusion are studied and discussed.
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  • Research on Application of Earth Moon NRHO and DRO for Lunar Exploration
  • ZENG Hao, LI Zhao yu, PENG Kun, WANG Ping, HUANG Zhen
  • 2020, 41 (7): 910-919. doi: 10.3873/j.issn.1000-1328.2020.07.009
  • Abstract ( 1049 ) PDF (6544KB)( 581 )
    Researching on the application of NRHO and DRO in the Earth-Moon system on low-energy round-trip transfer for Moon exploration, the paper combines the flyby technique and hybrid optimization technology, analyzes systematically the influence of different target orbits and different flyby azimuth on the key parameters such as flight time and fuel consumption, and provides the selection strategy for the initial value of round-trip orbit design. For the problem of initial value guess, the genetic algorithm and Lambert transfer are used to determine quickly the initial value that satisfies the constraints. Considering multiple constraints at perilune and perigee simultaneously, the fuel optimal round-trip orbit from the Earth is studied further based on the sequential quadratic programming algorithm and multiple shooting method, and the constraint equation analytic gradient is derived to improve the design efficiency. Finally, the variation characteristic of perilune attitude, transfer time and fuel consumption of different target orbits are analyzed, which is of great reference value for round-trip transfer design and parameter selection considering lunar flyby.
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  • The Application of Aerodynamic Coefficients Prediction Technique via Artificial Intelligence Method to Rocket First Stage Landing Area Control Project
  • DU Tao, XU Chen zhou, WANG Guo hui, GONG Yu kun, HE Wei, MOU Yu, LI Zhou yang, SHEN Dan, CHENG Xing, GAO Jia yi, HAN Zhong hua
  • 2021, 42 (1): 61-73. doi: 10.3873/j.issn.1000-1328.2021.01.007
  • Abstract ( 639 ) PDF (5877KB)( 550 )
    A novel approach of predicting aerodynamic data via artificial intelligence technique is proposed in this article. Based on wind tunnel tests of partial test states, combined with several CFD results, machine learning via Kriging model is used to predict the whole aerodynamic characteristics to shorten the development cycle and reduce the expensive wind tunnel tests as many as possible. After solving several key technical problems such as the selection of correlation functions, hyper parameters training, data verification and application of man in loop technique, the complete set of aerodynamic data was obtained successfully and used to the control law design in the rocket first stage landing area control project with grid fins. The correctness of the proposed method was validated by a flight test on 26th July, 2019, which was carried out successfully for the first time in China. At the end, the grading of technology maturity degree for the artificial intelligence technique is presented to evaluate application to aerodynamic engineering design problems.
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  • Review and Prospects of Development of Space On orbit  Manufacturing Technology
  • YANG Xing wen, HAN Jing tao, LIU Jing, ZHANG Cong fa, LIANG Jin chao
  • 2021, 42 (11): 1343-1354. doi: 10.3873/j.issn.1000-1328.2021.11.001
  • Abstract ( 517 ) PDF (8140KB)( 823 )
    In this paper mainly starting from the development background and practical significance of space on orbit manufacturing technology, the development of on orbit manufacturing technology is classified, summarized and commented from the four aspects of on orbit 3D printing, on orbit welding, on orbit strip based plastic forming, and on orbit in situ manufacturing. A series of bottleneck problems encountered in the current development process are pointed out, and the future development trends are predicted. Combining with the successful experiences of foreign on orbit manufacturing technology, this article finally gives out the areas that need to be paid attention and the direction of efforts in the development of China’s on orbit manufacturing technology. It is expected to provide a useful reference for the layout of China’s space on orbit manufacturing technology.

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  • Some Achievements on Interception of Near Space Hypersonic Vehicles

  • ZHAO Liang yu , YONG En mi , WANG Bo lan
  • 2020, 41 (10): 1239-1250. doi: 10.3873/j.issn.1000-1328.2020.10.001
  • Abstract ( 505 ) PDF (958KB)( 655 )
    In order to support the fundamental research and engineering development on interception of near space hypersonic vehicles in China, following the introduction of the flight characteristics and mission profiles of the typical near space hypersonic targets, the research achievements including target early warning and detection, trajectory tracking and prediction, guidance and control methods, and interception strategies are reviewed. Some key technical issues and feasible solutions in each aspect are discussed. It is suggested that the research should focus on early warning with space/near space/air/ground/sea system, infrared multimode seeker, direct/aerodynamic force control, collaborative interception and defense and so on.
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  • Research on Multibody Dynamic Modeling and Simulation Technology for Launch Vehicles

  • LI Dong, YANG Yun fei, HU Peng xiang, ZHANG Huan, CHENG Xing
  • 2021, 42 (2): 141-149. doi: 10.3873/j.issn.1000-1328.2021.02.001
  • Abstract ( 465 ) PDF (2888KB)( 388 )
    The new generation launch vehicles are encountered with the strong coupling problem between the structural dynamics and the control system, which would influence the flight stability. To address this challenge, a modeling and simulation approach based on the Multibody dynamic virtual prototype is presented so as to solve the verifying difficulty of the attitude dynamic model through ground tests. In this paper, the basic idea of applying the multibody virtual prototype in the attitude dynamics analysis of a launch vehicle is described firstly; then the difference between the multibody dynamics model and the traditional rocket attitude dynamics model is analyzed, and the significance of introducing the multibody simulation technology is pointed out; and finally, aiming at the new generation launch vehicles, a multibody virtual prototype modeling method is proposed and implemented, and the correctness of the new generation launch vehicles attitude dynamics model as well as the control parameters is simulated and tested. The research of this paper shows that the multibody dynamic virtual prototype simulation is an effective method to solve the complex dynamic coupling problems in space vehicle system design.
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  • Review and Prospect of Missile/Launch Vehicle Guidance, Navigation and Control Technologies
  • MA Wei hua
  • 2020, 41 (7): 860-867. doi: 10.3873/j.issn.1000-1328.2020.07.004
  • Abstract ( 433 ) PDF (1418KB)( 697 )
    This paper reviews the development and achievements of the guidance, navigation and control (GNC) technologies for missiles/launch vehicles. Some important breakthroughs and leapfrogs of GNC key technologies in different stages are summarized. Then, the article mainly focuses on the summary and applications of the inertial navigation, integrated navigation, perturbation guidance, close-loop guidance, iterative guidance, digital design, redundant control, adaptive control and other technologies. This paper considers and prospects the future development direction of China’s GNC technologies, and puts forward seven key technologies. At last, in order to meet the needs of “more intelligent and more autonomous” of the future missiles/launch vehicles, this paper proposes a new concept of launch vehicle named “Self-learning” missile/launch vehicle, and analyses the features of its GNC technologies.
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  • Technological Innovation and Development Prospect of Aerospace Vehicle
  • WANG Chang qing
  • 2021, 42 (7): 807-819. doi: 10.3873/j.issn.1000-1328.2021.07.001
  • Abstract ( 414 ) PDF (22394KB)( 667 )
    Firstly this paper introduces the development history and current situation of foreign aerospace vehicle technology. According to the world development experiences and the aerospace vehicle’s flight features, we raise the basic science problems of aerospace vehicle technology, and propose the solutions of aerospace vehicle technology based on current technological level. In conclusion, the development direction of aerospace vehicle technology is elucidated. It is generally known that the long term future of mankind must be in outer space. Developing a new generation of space transportation system is not only the requirement of large scale exploitation and utilization of outer space, but also will open up a new era of outer space. 

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  • PM2.5 in Space: Trend of Research on Dust Dynamics in Solar System
  • JIANG Yu
  • 2020, 41 (7): 889-900. doi: 10.3873/j.issn.1000-1328.2020.07.007
  • Abstract ( 406 ) PDF (1542KB)( 608 )
    This paper provides an overview of the basics involved in the dust dynamics in the solar system, including the classification, composition, size, density, shape, and life cycle of the dust grains. Furthermore, the mechanical processes, theories, models and methods in the mechanism of source and generation of the dust grains have been investigated, including dust ejection, surface spraying, weathering, regolith landslides, mass shedding, and rotational breakup. The charging process and the environment of the magnetic field of the dust grains are described. The results of the dust detection of space missions are briefly summarized. The recent progress on the dynamic model and motion of the dust grains, the distribution characteristics, the dynamic behavior and mechanism of a large number of dust grains have been investigated. Finally, the future trend of dust dynamics in the solar system has been prospected.
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  • Flight Mission Planning for Solar System Boundary Exploration

  • TIAN Bai yi, WANG Da yi, ZHANG Xiang yu, ZHOU Wen yan, ZHU An wen, HUANG Mei li, WANG Ying
  • 2021, 42 (3): 284-294. doi: 10.3873/j.issn.1000-1328.2021.03.003
  • Abstract ( 394 ) PDF (5888KB)( 799 )
    Mission planning of interplanetary multi objective flyby is carried out for solar system boundary exploration, and the optimization of low thrust interplanetary transfer orbit combined with planet gravity assistance is completed. Based on the above research, the interplanetary flight schemes for the exploration of the tip and tail of the heliosphere are given. The results show that a probe launched during 2024-2025 and 2027-2030 can arrive at about 100 AU from the solar center before 2049, and touch the nasal tip and tail of the heliosphere. Among them, the tip explorer is located in the central region of the nose tip when it flies to the distance of 100 AU, which can effectively complement the Voyager 1 and Voyager 2. The mission planning method used in this paper can provide the basis for the autonomous mission planning technology of solar system boundary exploration, and the relevant research results can provide valuable reference for the implementation of the first solar system boundary exploration mission in China in the future.
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  • An Intelligent Prediction Method of Hypersonic Glide Vehicle Trajectory
  • ZHANG Jun biao, XIONG Jia jun, LAN Xu hui, XI Qiu shi, XIA Liang, ZHANG Kai
  • 2022, 43 (4): 413-422. doi: 10.3873/j.issn.1000-1328.2022.04.003
  • Abstract ( 386 ) PDF (3021KB)( 260 )
    In order to solve the problem of high maneuverability and difficult trajectory prediction of hypersonic glide vehicle (HGV), an intelligent trajectory prediction method of HGV based on ensemble empirical mode decomposition and attention long short term memory network is proposed by selecting the aerodynamic acceleration as the prediction parameter. Firstly, the maneuvering characteristics and the aerodynamic variation law of HGV are analyzed based on the six degree of freedom motion equation. The dynamic tracking model is established to estimate the aerodynamic acceleration in real time. Secondly, the estimated aerodynamic acceleration is decomposed and reconstructed by using ensemble empirical mode decomposition to weaken the influence of noise and avoid interference to the prediction model. Finally, the denoised aerodynamic acceleration data used to train the attention long short term memory network. Then the future aerodynamic acceleration data predicted and the future trajectory of HGV is reconstructed to achieve online trajectory prediction. The simulation results show that the method can effectively predict the maneuver trajectory of HGV with high prediction accuracy and good stability.
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  • Development of Flight Control Technology of Long March Launch Vehicles
  • SONG Zheng yu, PAN Hao, WANG Cong, GONG Qing hai
  • 2020, 41 (7): 868-879. doi: 10.3873/j.issn.1000-1328.2020.07.005
  • Abstract ( 381 ) PDF (4834KB)( 790 )
    This paper firstly introduces the family of the new-generation Long March launch vehicles (LMLVs), and then reviews the evolution of their control systems from four aspects. The guidance method has developed from open-loop guidance, to iterative guidance, raising a variety of algorithms satisfying the large thrust direct injection and/or terminal attitude constraints, and greatly reducing the orbit injection errors. Based on the PID technology, the space modal and equivalent swing angle modeling are adopted in the attitude control method, to solve the problems of joint swing with side and core boosters’ engines; and an active load relief proposal is presented by combining with active-disturbance-rejection controller (ARDC). China’s Manned Space Program promotes the study on systematic reliability design, and a technical system has been formed gradually with the features of redundant devices, fault-tolerant algorithms, and onboard system reconfiguration, thus boosting the overall reliability improvement on the control system. The avionics system develops from the discrete, centralized architecture, to the integrated, distributed digital system. Finally, according to the current research focus in the aerospace control technologies, the latest practices and the prospects of LMLV’s flight control technology are summarized.
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  • Review on Pintle Injector of Throttling Liquid Rocket Engine
  • ZHANG Bo tao, LI Ping, WANG Kai, YANG Bao e
  • 2020, 41 (12): 1481-1489. doi: 10.3873/j.issn.1000-1328.2020.12.001
  • Abstract ( 374 ) PDF (1942KB)( 232 )
    In order to summarize the research results and sort out the future development direction, the research progress in pintle injector of throttling liquid rocket engine is reviewed. Firstly, the basic concept and research significance of the pintle injector are summarized. Then the research status and history of pintle injector are introduced from the aspects of the design principle, engineering development, atomization characteristics and combustion characteristics. Finally, the development trend of the pintle injector and some scientific problems to be further researched are prospected. The results show that the atomization and combustion characteristics of liquid liquid pintle injector and gas liquid pintle injector need continuous research. The future researches may focus on the spray angle, mixing characteristics and leakage ratio in atomization characteristics. In addition, the atomization characteristics of the pintle injector under back pressure could be explored. For the combustion characteristics, further researches should be surrounded by the temperature distribution, flame structure and combustion stability.
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  • Analysis of Collision Risk Between Constellation Satellites  and Large Low Orbit Spacecraft
  • LI Cui lan , OUYANG Qi , CHEN Ming , LIU Jing
  • 2020, 41 (9): 1158-1165. doi: 10.3873/j.issn.1000-1328.2020.09.006
  • Abstract ( 347 ) PDF (3355KB)( 444 )
    Since the development of commercial small satellite constellations brings great potential risk to the flight safety of spacecraft, the collision risk between the 600 km-height constellation satellites and the large low-orbit spacecraft is analyzed in this paper. The BOX method and the collision probability method are used to calculate the collision risk. According to the orbital evolution analysis of the constellation satellites, the possible collision time is relatively centralized, and the duration is about 1-2 years. The results of the BOX method show that the number of the red alert conjunction is about 10 times for each satellite with the large low-orbit spacecraft. The results of the collision probability method show that about 5% of the constellation satellites might trigger the red alert threshold, which indicates that the constellations will bring great potential risk to the large low-orbit spacecraft within 1-2 years if it uses the uncontrolled reentry at the end of their lifetime.
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  • Review on Input Saturation in the Spacecraft Attitude Control
  • WANG Liang yue, GUO Yan ning, MA Guang fu, LIU Wei lin
  • 2021, 42 (1): 11-21. doi: 10.3873/j.issn.1000-1328.2021.01.002
  • Abstract ( 340 ) PDF (1327KB)( 244 )
    The existing methods to solve the control input saturation problem are summarized and divided into three main technical approaches. Then systematically analyze and compare the design ideas, mathematical forms and working characteristics of each methods. Summarize and analyze the effectiveness and area of application of the three technical approaches mainly including as follow in order to provide effective support for practical tasks. 1) Control law considering saturation as a whole: including saturation function, limiting function, switching function, anti saturation control, etc. Due to the high efficiency of actuator and complex form, it is suitable for the fast attitude maneuver missions of spacecraft with high computing power and adjusting time. 2) Control law considering saturation every item separately, including PD type control, backstepping control, etc. This technical approach has simple design and insufficiently utilization of the actuator which is suitable for attitude regulation with no time requirement or low cost small satellites. 3) Optimization considering saturation constraints: including time/energy/fuel optimal control and hybrid index optimal control, etc. This approach, which has high computation and dependence on accurate mathematical model, is suitable for the optimal attitude maneuvers of large spacecraft because of solving multiple constraints optimal problem.
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  • A Coplanar Regional Centralized Autonomous Navigation Algorithm for Beidou Satellites
  • LIN Xia, LIN Bao jun, LIU Ying chun, BAI Tao, WU Guo qiang
  • 2021, 42 (1): 113-121. doi: 10.3873/j.issn.1000-1328.2021.01.012
  • Abstract ( 334 ) PDF (1738KB)( 189 )
    Based on the configuration plan of BeiDou 3 satellites, a coplanar regional autonomous navigation algorithm for Beidou satellites is proposed. In the algorithm,the two way Ka ranging information collected by the co orbit satellites is designed to transmit to the main satellite by the laser inter satellite links and then with the ranging information, the main satellite can update the coplanar satellitesorbit information centralizedly. The algorithm takes full advantage of the flexible direction switching feature of Ka inter satellite links and the high speed communication feature of laser links and also overcomes the communication difficulties between different planes and direction switching weaknesses of the laser links. In addition, an intra satellite simulation environment is built to verify the accuracy and feasibility of the algorithm. The simulation results show that the regional centralized autonomous navigation algorithm can stably run in the simulation environment, and its navigation accuracy is much better than that of the distributed autonomous navigation.
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  • Shape Optimization of Nonlinear Spring and Design of Adjustable  Constant Force Device
  • XU Yan, XU Yi xian, FANG Qin, CONG Qiang, LIN Qiu hong
  • 2020, 41 (12): 1499-1506. doi: 10.3873/j.issn.1000-1328.2020.12.003
  • Abstract ( 330 ) PDF (2262KB)( 157 )
    The design method of adjustable constant force devices based on composite structures is studied. A constant force device is composed of a nonlinear spring with negative stiffness and a linear spring with positive stiffness. The B spline curve is used to describe the nonlinear spring, and the shape optimization of the nonlinear spring is realized based on the GA algorithm and nonlinear finite element method. According to the working principle of the constant force devices, the linear helical spring is designed and the stiffness/strength characteristics are analyzed. The mechanical analysis of the composite structures shows that the constant force device can realize the function of outputting constant tension force. To achieve the self protection and adjustment of the magnitude/direction of the output forces, the component designs in the devices are carried out. The design method of the constant force devices in the paper provides technical supports for the engineering development of planar membrane antennas and solar arrays.
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  • Research Progress and Prospect of the Hypersonic Flight Vehicle Control Technology
  • ZHANG Yuan, HUANG Xu, LU Kunfeng, BAI Wenyan, HUANG Wanwei
  • 2022, 43 (7): 866-879. doi: 10.3873/j.issn.1000-1328.2022.07.003
  • Abstract ( 326 ) PDF (4980KB)( 451 )
    Aiming at the difficulties of a class of hypersonic flight vehicle (HFV) involving variable configurations, the engineering application requirements are analyzed, and the research progress of several typical nonlinear control methods is summarized. Firstly, the sources and characteristics of several common research models of hypersonic flight vehicle are summarized. Secondly, based on the actual engineering requirements, the control difficulties and needs for the control system capability of such vehicle are analyzed. Furthermore, the current status of several typical nonlinear control methods and intelligent control methods for hypersonic flight vehicle are summarized, and the frameworks of various control schemes are given. Finally, some problems and directions for further research are discussed for the HFV control with diversified mission forms and complicated environment in the future.
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