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  • Research Progress and Prospect of the Hypersonic Flight Vehicle Control Technology
  • ZHANG Yuan, HUANG Xu, LU Kunfeng, BAI Wenyan, HUANG Wanwei
  • 2022, 43 (7): 866-879. doi: 10.3873/j.issn.1000-1328.2022.07.003
  • Abstract ( 327 ) PDF (4980KB)( 452 )
    Aiming at the difficulties of a class of hypersonic flight vehicle (HFV) involving variable configurations, the engineering application requirements are analyzed, and the research progress of several typical nonlinear control methods is summarized. Firstly, the sources and characteristics of several common research models of hypersonic flight vehicle are summarized. Secondly, based on the actual engineering requirements, the control difficulties and needs for the control system capability of such vehicle are analyzed. Furthermore, the current status of several typical nonlinear control methods and intelligent control methods for hypersonic flight vehicle are summarized, and the frameworks of various control schemes are given. Finally, some problems and directions for further research are discussed for the HFV control with diversified mission forms and complicated environment in the future.
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  • Research Progress on Dynamics and Control of the Space Elevator
  • GUAN Yingzi, WEN Zida, WANG Xiaowei, ZHANG Feng, CUI Naigang
  • 2022, 43 (5): 537-547. doi: 10.3873/j.issn.1000-1328.2022.05.001
  • Abstract ( 294 ) PDF (1060KB)( 373 )
    The components and initial deployment of a space elevator system is briefly introduced in this work. On this basis, aiming at the complex dynamics and control problems existing both in the initial deployment and the follow up operation, the development status of dynamics and control of the space elevator system is analyzed and summarized from five aspects, including the dynamic modeling, stability, cable oscillation, cable oscillation caused by climber(s) motion and oscillation suppression, and initial deployment dynamics. Finally, further development of dynamics and control of the space elevator is summarized and prospected.

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  • Analysis on Selection of Parking Orbit for Lunar Space Station
  • PENG Qi bo, LV Ji yuan
  • 2022, 43 (2): 167-172. doi: 10.3873/j.issn.1000-1328.2022.02.004
  • Abstract ( 235 ) PDF (1407KB)( 355 )
    This paper systematically reviews the types of parking orbits near the moon that can be used to deploy space station, and gives the definitions and main parameters of different types of orbits. The energy requirements, mission support, space environment and other characteristics of different types of orbits are analyzed through simulation calculation and comparison of domestic and foreign orbit research conclusions. The main considerations and basis for the selection of the deployment orbit for deep space Gateway are analyzed. Finally, this paper offers several suggestions on the application of various kinds of orbits, which can provide technical reference for the selection of the parking orbit for the future deployment of lunar space station.
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  • Mission Reconstruction Method with Lightweight Online Computation for Launch Vehicles under Thrust Drop Fault
  • HE Xiao, TAN Shu jun, WU Zhi gang, ZHANG Li yong, LIU Yu xi
  • 2022, 43 (3): 344-355. doi: 10.3873/j.issn.1000-1328.2022.03.010
  • Abstract ( 146 ) PDF (4480KB)( 318 )
    To avoid the launch failure of launch vehicles caused by thrust drop faults, an online mission reconstruction method based on radial basis function neural network (RBFNN) is proposed, which can quickly obtain the approximate solution of flight trajectory from the fault position to the optimal rescue orbit (optimal trajectory, OT) online. In the offline part, mission reconstruction problems under numerous fault states of the thrust drop are solved by the convex optimization and the adaptive collocation method to generate the dataset about the fault states versus the OT. The dataset is used to train the RBFNN to establish a trajectory decision making model for mapping the relationship from the fault states to the OT. During the online application, instead of iteratively solving the trajectory optimization problem, the RBFNN trained offline is used for forward propagation, the approximate solution of the OT can quickly be obtained by the trajectory decision making model. The effectiveness of the proposed method in the case of circular orbit and elliptical orbit is validated by the numerical simulation. The results show that the online solving times of the proposed method are decreased by more than three orders of magnitude, compared with the direct method.
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  • Design and Implementation of GNC System for Entry Capsule of Tianwen 1 Probe
  • ZHAO Yu, YUAN Li, WANG Xiao lei, HUANG Xiang yu, LIU Wang wang, HUA Bao cheng, LI Mao deng, XU Li jia, WANG Yun peng, HAO Ce, LI Tao, ZHANG Lin
  • 2022, 43 (1): 1-10. doi: 10.3873/j.issn.1000-1328.2022.01.001
  • Abstract ( 247 ) PDF (3904KB)( 310 )
    In order to cope with the characteristics of short duration of Mars EDL process, large telemetry and telecontrol delay, large impact dynamic environment and shortage of high precision map, the entry capsule GNC system of Tianwen 1 probe is designed with autonomy and fault tolerance. The design of system level hot backup and heterogeneous hot backup of key components ensures the independent diagnosis and correction of component failure. The fault tolerance of the system is improved by the strategies of independent work mode conversion and the multi criterion backup of key work mode conversion. The autonomous impact resistance management of the components power supply as well as the autonomous fault diagnosis and correction strategy of touch down sensors ensure the effective response to the high dynamic conditions such as the initiation of initiating explosive device. Aiming at the combination of parachute backshell avoidance and terrain obstacle avoidance, a set of hazard avoidance system and its application strategy of laser imaging sensor and optical sensor are designed. Special experiments such as helicopter flight test are implemented to verify the system design. In actual flight, the entry capsule GNC system of Tianwen 1 probe successfully implemented the key actions such as unfolding the trim wing, completed the parachute backshell avoidance and terrain obstacle avoidance, and achieved the final landing accuracy of 3.1 km, which fully proved the correctness of the system design.

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  • Online Trajectory Planning Method for Rocket Vertical Recovery Based on hp Pseudospectral Homotopic Convex Optimization
  • GUO Jie, XIANG Yan, WANG Xiao, SHI Pengfei, TANG Shengjing
  • 2022, 43 (5): 603-614. doi: 10.3873/j.issn.1000-1328.2022.05.006
  • Abstract ( 146 ) PDF (4351KB)( 295 )
    For the trajectory optimization problem of reusable launch vehicle vertical recovery, an online trajectory planning algorithm with optimal terminal time estimation strategy is proposed based on the hp pseudospectral homotopic convex optimization method. Firstly, considering the non convexity of the state constraints and process constraints, the lossless convexification is used to deal with the thrust magnitudes constraint. Then, the aerodynamic and non convex mass constraint are transformed into linear time varying profile by combing the homotopic approach and fixed point iteration ideas to complete the problem convexification. The control problem is further discretized based on the hp flipped Radau pseudospectral method, and is transformed into a parameter optimization problem, which is then solved by the primal dual interior point method. Finally, in order to further reduce fuel consumption and improve economic efficiency, considering the problem that the optimal terminal time is difficult to be determined online, a fast estimation strategy for the optimal terminal time is designed by combining analytical derivation and quadratic interpolation method. The simulation results show that the designed trajectory optimization algorithm has fast speed of optimal terminal time estimation, excellent convergence performance, high accuracy and computational efficiency, and has the potential for online application.
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  • Structure and Mechanism Technology of In Space Manufacturing Space Optical Telescope
  • GUO Chong ling, CHEN Chuan zhi, CHEN Jin bao, WANG Wei zhi
  • 2022, 43 (2): 158-166. doi: 10.3873/j.issn.1000-1328.2022.02.003
  • Abstract ( 242 ) PDF (1024KB)( 283 )
    Centering on the structural mechanism technology in the on orbit construction of space optical telescope, this paper focuses on the basic concepts and technical characteristics of key technologies related to structure and mechanism, including topology optimization and module technology of space structure of large telescope, high precision deployment adjustment and locking technology of optical mechanical structure and mechanism, on orbit additive manufacturing technology of typical optical mechanical components. It also analyzes the technical connotation and advanced technical approaches of robot assisted autonomous precision assembly and control technology. Finally, the development trend of structure and mechanism technology in on orbit construction and some technical problems to be studied are prospected. This paper may provide a reference for evolution of space optical telescope.
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  • Dual level Path trajectory Generation with Complex No fly Zone Constraints for Hypersonic Vehicle
  • ZHANG Yuan, ZHANG Ran, LI Huifeng
  • 2022, 43 (5): 615-627. doi: 10.3873/j.issn.1000-1328.2022.05.007
  • Abstract ( 152 ) PDF (3458KB)( 281 )
    Aiming at the avoidance for hypersonic vehicle in complex no fly zones, in order to solve the problem that the existing trajectory generation methods are strongly dependent on the initial guess, a path trajectory generation method is proposed based on the dual level planning modeling. Among them, the upper level is for path planning, providing path points information for the trajectory to avoid local solutions; the lower level is for trajectory planning, using the path points output by the upper layer to divide the trajectory into several sub segments with small lateral maneuver, and the lateral and longitudinal flight profiles are analytically solved to reduce the simplification error of the motion model. Numerical simulations show that, compared with the existing methods, this method can select the path with better indicators and then improve the global performance. In addition, the guidance error of analytical flight profile is less than 0.03%, which solves the analytical problem of large scale lateral maneuvering.
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  • Review on Hybrid Propulsion Technology of Micro/Nano Satellite
  • ZHANG Zhi yuan, DENG Han yu, LIAO Wen he, ZHANG Xiang, ZHAO Ling, BI Yi fan
  • 2022, 43 (3): 282-292. doi: 10.3873/j.issn.1000-1328.2022.03.003
  • Abstract ( 172 ) PDF (2531KB)( 280 )
    The characteristics and advantages of micro/nano satellite hybrid propulsion system are firstly introduced. The development status of micro/nano satellite hybrid propulsion technology is further summarized. Then, the tendency and problem are also presented on the basis of requirements of micro/nano satellite propulsion system. Based on these, the main key technologies that need to be overcome are introduced from the perspective of satellite engineering applications, including advanced integrated manufacturing, reliable low power multiple ignitions, improvement in specific impulse and efficient combustion. At last, the suggestions on development of the micro/nano satellite hybrid propulsion system in China are given.
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  • An Intelligent Prediction Method of Hypersonic Glide Vehicle Trajectory
  • ZHANG Jun biao, XIONG Jia jun, LAN Xu hui, XI Qiu shi, XIA Liang, ZHANG Kai
  • 2022, 43 (4): 413-422. doi: 10.3873/j.issn.1000-1328.2022.04.003
  • Abstract ( 389 ) PDF (3021KB)( 266 )
    In order to solve the problem of high maneuverability and difficult trajectory prediction of hypersonic glide vehicle (HGV), an intelligent trajectory prediction method of HGV based on ensemble empirical mode decomposition and attention long short term memory network is proposed by selecting the aerodynamic acceleration as the prediction parameter. Firstly, the maneuvering characteristics and the aerodynamic variation law of HGV are analyzed based on the six degree of freedom motion equation. The dynamic tracking model is established to estimate the aerodynamic acceleration in real time. Secondly, the estimated aerodynamic acceleration is decomposed and reconstructed by using ensemble empirical mode decomposition to weaken the influence of noise and avoid interference to the prediction model. Finally, the denoised aerodynamic acceleration data used to train the attention long short term memory network. Then the future aerodynamic acceleration data predicted and the future trajectory of HGV is reconstructed to achieve online trajectory prediction. The simulation results show that the method can effectively predict the maneuver trajectory of HGV with high prediction accuracy and good stability.
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  • Deep Reinforcement Learning Guidance Law for Intercepting Endo atmospheric Maneuvering Targets
  • QIU Xiaoqi, GAO Changsheng, JING Wuxing
  • 2022, 43 (5): 685-695. doi: 10.3873/j.issn.1000-1328.2022.05.013
  • Abstract ( 268 ) PDF (3376KB)( 256 )
    Aiming at the problem of intercepting endo atmospheric high speed maneuvering targets, a deep reinforcement learning guidance law is proposed based on the twin delayed deep deterministic policy gradient(TD3) algorithm. It directly maps the engagement information to the commanded acceleration of the interceptor, which is an end to-end, model free guidance strategy. Firstly, the engagement kinematic model of both sides is described as a Markov decision process suitable for deep reinforcement learning algorithms. After that, a complete deep reinforcement learning guidance algorithm is constructed by reasonably designing the engagement scenarios, action space, state space and network structure required for algorithm training. The reward shaping and random initialization are introduced to construct a complete algorithm. The simulation results show that, compared with the proportional guidance and augmented proportional guidance laws, the proposed guidance strategy can reduce the requirement for mid course guidance while having smaller miss distances. It has good robustness and generalization ability, with less computational burden that makes it eligible to run on missile borne computers.
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  • Some Thoughts about Cislunar Exploration and Exploitation
  • BAO Weimin, WANG Xiaowei
  • 2022, 43 (6): 705-712. doi: 10.3873/j.issn.1000-328.2022.06.001
  • Abstract ( 204 ) PDF (3995KB)( 248 )
    The concept of cislunar exploration and exploitation is put forward firstly in this paper. The global development status and trends are summarized, and the development demands are described from perspectives of human civilization, the pattern of space, strategic security and sci tech/economy development. The architecture composition, functional requirements, technical difficulties are proposed. The development benefits are analyzed from three aspects of science, economy and engineering. Finally, the development roadmap is given. The research results can provide reference for large scale exploration and exploitation of cislunar space in the future.
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  • Review of Guidance and Integrated Guidance and Control Methods under Terminal Angle Constraints
  • ZHAO Bin, LIANG Lecheng, JIANG Ruimin, ZHOU Jun
  • 2022, 43 (5): 563-579. doi: 10.3873/j.issn.1000-1328.2022.05.003
  • Abstract ( 221 ) PDF (1228KB)( 245 )
    Guidance methods and integrated guidance and control(IGC) methods under terminal angle constraints of guided weapons are reviewed. Firstly, several typical definitions of terminal angle constraints are compared and analyzed, and the state space models of the guidance law and IGC method design oriented to terminal angle constraints are constructed for two and three dimensional engagement scenarios. Subsequently, the current approaches involving guidance and IGC methods under terminal angle constraints are classified, concluded and compared in detail. Thirdly, the problems of multi constraint impact angle control, guidance information extraction, impact angle range estimation and cooperative guidance in the guidance and IGC methods under terminal angle constraints are prospected.
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  • Design and Test of Tianwen 1 Probe High Dynamic Landing Inertial Navigation System
  • XU Li jia, WANG Xiao lei, FENG Shi wei, ZHAO Yu, LIN Song, LIU Wang wang, LI Mao deng, HAO Ce, WANG Yun peng, HUANG Xiang yu
  • 2022, 43 (1): 30-35. doi: 10.3873/j.issn.1000-1328.2022.01.004
  • Abstract ( 105 ) PDF (1802KB)( 237 )
    Considering that the landing process of Mars exploration mission is high dynamic, especially the parachute opening in the thin atmosphere of Mars will cause violent shaking of the probe,the Tianwen 1 probe has developed a high dynamic landing inertial navigation system, including product design, timing analysis and navigation algorithms. In order to verify the performance of the Tianwen 1 probe high dynamic landing inertial navigation system, the upper air parachute opening test by a rocket is designed to simulate the parachute opening condition of Mars. The navigation results show that the design of the high dynamic landing inertial navigation system meets the requirements of the Mars exploration mission.

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  • Relative Positioning Algorithm of UAV Formation Based on Binocular Vision
  • ZHOU Wen ya, LI Zhe, XU Yong, YANG Feng, JIA Tao
  • 2022, 43 (1): 122-130. doi: 10.3873/j.issn.1000-1328.2022.01.014
  • Abstract ( 133 ) PDF (1884KB)( 236 )
    Aiming at the technical situation of poor accuracy of binocular vision positioning, large amount of calculation, and low real time performance during UAV formation flying, the oriented fast and rotated brief (ORB) algorithm based on feature points is improved, and an algorithm suitable for binocular vision positioning of UAVs is proposed. In the improved ORB algorithm, the methods of extracting the target area, nearest neighbor constraint and random sampling consensus (RANSAC) are adopted to improve the efficiency of feature point extraction and matching, and also improve the quality of feature point matching. For binocular vision positioning, a binocular vision positioning model with broader applicable conditions is proposed, and the positioning accuracy of the model is guaranteed. Finally, the Kalman filter algorithm is used to estimate the positioning information of the UAV, which further improves the positioning accuracy of the UAV. The experiments show that the algorithm has high accuracy and real time performance, and meets the relative positioning requirements between UAVs.
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