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  • Summary and Future Development of On board Information Fusion for Multi satellite Collaborative Observation
  • HE You, YAO Li bo, LI Gang, LIU Yu, YANG Dong, LI Wen feng
  • 2021, 42 (1): 1-10. doi: 10.3873/j.issn.1000-1328.2021.01.001
  • Abstract ( 1543 ) PDF (3941KB)( 1228 )
    On board information fusion for multi satellite which is based on spatial computing mode can improve the satellitescapability such as the accuracy of detection, the confidence of recognition, the precision of position and the coverage of spatial temporal for disaster monitoring, maritime surveillance and other emergent or continuous persistent observing situations. Firstly, the necessity of on board information fusion is analyzed. Secondly, the on board processing developments are summarized and the existing problems are discussed. And thirdly, the key technology and concepts of on board information fusion are studied in the fields of target feature representation, target association, feature level fusion, autonomous mission planning and other issues. Finally the future developments of on board information fusion are studied and discussed.
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  • Dynamic Analysis of Spinning Deployment of Space Web
  • QIN Zhi wei, LIU Zhen, SUN Guo peng, QI Yu feng
  • 2021, 42 (1): 41-49. doi: 10.3873/j.issn.1000-1328.2021.01.005
  • Abstract ( 300 ) PDF (5459KB)( 840 )
    In the launching scheme of using a pyrotechnic device to project a space web, there are some problems such as the large shock between the space web system and the satellite platform, the short maintenance time of the web configuration after deployed, etc. This paper presents a scheme for unfolding a space web through four controllable rotary tubes to overcome the above problems. An analytical model based on the Lagrange dynamics equation and finite element (FE) models using the central difference algorithm are developed and compared together. The results of the angular velocity of the rotary tubes and the length of the web arms are very consistent when the web arms are analyzed with the analytical model and the FE model, which proves that the simulation model construction method is effective. The topology and control strategy of the space webs are optimized under the FE web model, so that the state after deployment of the space webs can be maintained for a long time.
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  • Review and Prospects of Development of Space On orbit  Manufacturing Technology
  • YANG Xing wen, HAN Jing tao, LIU Jing, ZHANG Cong fa, LIANG Jin chao
  • 2021, 42 (11): 1343-1354. doi: 10.3873/j.issn.1000-1328.2021.11.001
  • Abstract ( 522 ) PDF (8140KB)( 830 )
    In this paper mainly starting from the development background and practical significance of space on orbit manufacturing technology, the development of on orbit manufacturing technology is classified, summarized and commented from the four aspects of on orbit 3D printing, on orbit welding, on orbit strip based plastic forming, and on orbit in situ manufacturing. A series of bottleneck problems encountered in the current development process are pointed out, and the future development trends are predicted. Combining with the successful experiences of foreign on orbit manufacturing technology, this article finally gives out the areas that need to be paid attention and the direction of efforts in the development of China’s on orbit manufacturing technology. It is expected to provide a useful reference for the layout of China’s space on orbit manufacturing technology.

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  • Flight Mission Planning for Solar System Boundary Exploration

  • TIAN Bai yi, WANG Da yi, ZHANG Xiang yu, ZHOU Wen yan, ZHU An wen, HUANG Mei li, WANG Ying
  • 2021, 42 (3): 284-294. doi: 10.3873/j.issn.1000-1328.2021.03.003
  • Abstract ( 394 ) PDF (5888KB)( 801 )
    Mission planning of interplanetary multi objective flyby is carried out for solar system boundary exploration, and the optimization of low thrust interplanetary transfer orbit combined with planet gravity assistance is completed. Based on the above research, the interplanetary flight schemes for the exploration of the tip and tail of the heliosphere are given. The results show that a probe launched during 2024-2025 and 2027-2030 can arrive at about 100 AU from the solar center before 2049, and touch the nasal tip and tail of the heliosphere. Among them, the tip explorer is located in the central region of the nose tip when it flies to the distance of 100 AU, which can effectively complement the Voyager 1 and Voyager 2. The mission planning method used in this paper can provide the basis for the autonomous mission planning technology of solar system boundary exploration, and the relevant research results can provide valuable reference for the implementation of the first solar system boundary exploration mission in China in the future.
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  • Technological Innovation and Development Prospect of Aerospace Vehicle
  • WANG Chang qing
  • 2021, 42 (7): 807-819. doi: 10.3873/j.issn.1000-1328.2021.07.001
  • Abstract ( 416 ) PDF (22394KB)( 667 )
    Firstly this paper introduces the development history and current situation of foreign aerospace vehicle technology. According to the world development experiences and the aerospace vehicle’s flight features, we raise the basic science problems of aerospace vehicle technology, and propose the solutions of aerospace vehicle technology based on current technological level. In conclusion, the development direction of aerospace vehicle technology is elucidated. It is generally known that the long term future of mankind must be in outer space. Developing a new generation of space transportation system is not only the requirement of large scale exploitation and utilization of outer space, but also will open up a new era of outer space. 

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  • The Application of Aerodynamic Coefficients Prediction Technique via Artificial Intelligence Method to Rocket First Stage Landing Area Control Project
  • DU Tao, XU Chen zhou, WANG Guo hui, GONG Yu kun, HE Wei, MOU Yu, LI Zhou yang, SHEN Dan, CHENG Xing, GAO Jia yi, HAN Zhong hua
  • 2021, 42 (1): 61-73. doi: 10.3873/j.issn.1000-1328.2021.01.007
  • Abstract ( 641 ) PDF (5877KB)( 552 )
    A novel approach of predicting aerodynamic data via artificial intelligence technique is proposed in this article. Based on wind tunnel tests of partial test states, combined with several CFD results, machine learning via Kriging model is used to predict the whole aerodynamic characteristics to shorten the development cycle and reduce the expensive wind tunnel tests as many as possible. After solving several key technical problems such as the selection of correlation functions, hyper parameters training, data verification and application of man in loop technique, the complete set of aerodynamic data was obtained successfully and used to the control law design in the rocket first stage landing area control project with grid fins. The correctness of the proposed method was validated by a flight test on 26th July, 2019, which was carried out successfully for the first time in China. At the end, the grading of technology maturity degree for the artificial intelligence technique is presented to evaluate application to aerodynamic engineering design problems.
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  • Review of Deployable SAR Antenna Structures of Spacecraft
  • QIU Hui, LIU Zhi quan, ZENG Hui zhong, BAI Zhao guang, YANG Zhi
  • 2021, 42 (10): 1197-1206. doi: 10.3873/j.issn.1000-1328.2021.10.001
  • Abstract ( 294 ) PDF (7377KB)( 463 )
    The development of four kinds of parabolic antenna structures is presented, including radial rib antenna structure, wrapped rib antenna structure, truss antenna structure and hoop antenna structure. A detailed comparison of these four structures is presented. Additionally, for the planar antenna structures, the features of wing antenna structures, truss antenna structures and membrane antenna structures are summarized. Finally, future trends of large, high packing factor and high surface accuracy are pointed out. And the technical difficulties which should be overcome before space applications of larger and higher precision SAR antennas are proposed.

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  • Research Progress and Prospect of the Hypersonic Flight Vehicle Control Technology
  • ZHANG Yuan, HUANG Xu, LU Kunfeng, BAI Wenyan, HUANG Wanwei
  • 2022, 43 (7): 866-879. doi: 10.3873/j.issn.1000-1328.2022.07.003
  • Abstract ( 327 ) PDF (4980KB)( 452 )
    Aiming at the difficulties of a class of hypersonic flight vehicle (HFV) involving variable configurations, the engineering application requirements are analyzed, and the research progress of several typical nonlinear control methods is summarized. Firstly, the sources and characteristics of several common research models of hypersonic flight vehicle are summarized. Secondly, based on the actual engineering requirements, the control difficulties and needs for the control system capability of such vehicle are analyzed. Furthermore, the current status of several typical nonlinear control methods and intelligent control methods for hypersonic flight vehicle are summarized, and the frameworks of various control schemes are given. Finally, some problems and directions for further research are discussed for the HFV control with diversified mission forms and complicated environment in the future.
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  • Spacecraft Intelligent Autonomous Control Technology  Toward Uncertain Environment
  • YUAN Li
  • 2021, 42 (7): 839-849. doi: 10.3873/j.issn.1000-1328.2021.07.004
  • Abstract ( 304 ) PDF (1652KB)( 403 )
    This paper analyzes and summarizes the research status of autonomous observation technology, autonomous decision making technology and control technology involved in intelligent autonomous control systems, and also analyzes the current technical problems of spacecraft control systems in dealing with uncertain environments. Considering the needs of future space missions, a new closed loop structure of “Observation evolution decision action” (OEDA) is proposed for spacecraft, and the characteristics and functions are discussed. The theories and methods involved in observation, evolution, decision making and control action in the OEDA control framework are further given. Finally, the key scientific problems that need to be solved in the practical applications and further development of the control framework are analyzed. 

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  • Boost cruise Trajectory Optimization of Air Breathing Hypersonic Vehicles
  • ZHAO Ji song, LI Chang, WANG Chen xi, WANG Tao, ZHU Bo ling, YANG Mei
  • 2021, 42 (7): 820-829. doi: 10.3873/j.issn.1000-1328.2021.07.002
  • Abstract ( 223 ) PDF (5574KB)( 401 )
    A two dimensional trajectory optimization model in the vertical plane is established for air breathing hypersonic cruise vehicles, including the rocket boost phase and the air breathing phase. The atmospheric model, the aerodynamic models and the thrust models are modeled in detail so that the features of air breathing hypersonic cruise vehicles can be described comprehensively and accurately. A method based on the local collocation method is established for solving the boost cruise trajectory optimization of air breathing hypersonic cruise vehicles. Normalization scaling, sparsity analysis and an efficient partial derivative calculation method are utilized to help solve the nonlinear programming in order to improve the optimization efficiency. Numerical simulation is carried out for the boost cruise trajectory optimization of air breathing hypersonic cruise vehicles, and the influences of typical design parameters are analyzed. Simulation results show that the proposed method can  solve the trajectory optimization problems of hypersonic cruise vehicles rapidly and accurately, and can be used to analyze the influences of different design parameter values on the optimal trajectory conveniently, demonstrating its application in the flight profile design and optimization of air breathing hypersonic vehicles.
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  • Design of Earth Moon Transfer Orbit for Manned Lunar Polar Exploration Missions

  • LU Lin, LI Hai yang, ZHOU Wan meng, LIU Jiang hui
  • 2021, 42 (4): 425-436. doi: 10.3873/j.issn.1000-1328.2021.04.003
  • Abstract ( 172 ) PDF (5412KB)( 394 )
    An Earth Moon transfer orbit scheme combining free return orbit with three impulse maneuver orbit is adopted for manned lunar polar exploration missions. In terms of the design of the free return phase, a two phase patched model based on pseudo perilune parameters is established and an improved multi conic method considering correction of Earth oblateness is used. Simulation results show the improved multi conic method has a higher accuracy and can provide better initial values for the accurate design. In terms of the design of the three impulse maneuver phase, based on the hybrid orbit model, a method combining maneuvering at special points with Lambert algorithm is proposed for computation. Simulation results show this method can reduce the velocity increment effectively. Finally, with a great deal of simulation the velocity increment characteristics of orbit are analyzed. The research conclusions can provide significant reference for the design of Earth Moon transfer orbit scheme for manned lunar polar exploration missions in the future.
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  • Research on Multibody Dynamic Modeling and Simulation Technology for Launch Vehicles

  • LI Dong, YANG Yun fei, HU Peng xiang, ZHANG Huan, CHENG Xing
  • 2021, 42 (2): 141-149. doi: 10.3873/j.issn.1000-1328.2021.02.001
  • Abstract ( 465 ) PDF (2888KB)( 388 )
    The new generation launch vehicles are encountered with the strong coupling problem between the structural dynamics and the control system, which would influence the flight stability. To address this challenge, a modeling and simulation approach based on the Multibody dynamic virtual prototype is presented so as to solve the verifying difficulty of the attitude dynamic model through ground tests. In this paper, the basic idea of applying the multibody virtual prototype in the attitude dynamics analysis of a launch vehicle is described firstly; then the difference between the multibody dynamics model and the traditional rocket attitude dynamics model is analyzed, and the significance of introducing the multibody simulation technology is pointed out; and finally, aiming at the new generation launch vehicles, a multibody virtual prototype modeling method is proposed and implemented, and the correctness of the new generation launch vehicles attitude dynamics model as well as the control parameters is simulated and tested. The research of this paper shows that the multibody dynamic virtual prototype simulation is an effective method to solve the complex dynamic coupling problems in space vehicle system design.
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  • Research Progress on Dynamics and Control of the Space Elevator
  • GUAN Yingzi, WEN Zida, WANG Xiaowei, ZHANG Feng, CUI Naigang
  • 2022, 43 (5): 537-547. doi: 10.3873/j.issn.1000-1328.2022.05.001
  • Abstract ( 294 ) PDF (1060KB)( 373 )
    The components and initial deployment of a space elevator system is briefly introduced in this work. On this basis, aiming at the complex dynamics and control problems existing both in the initial deployment and the follow up operation, the development status of dynamics and control of the space elevator system is analyzed and summarized from five aspects, including the dynamic modeling, stability, cable oscillation, cable oscillation caused by climber(s) motion and oscillation suppression, and initial deployment dynamics. Finally, further development of dynamics and control of the space elevator is summarized and prospected.

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  • Analysis on Selection of Parking Orbit for Lunar Space Station
  • PENG Qi bo, LV Ji yuan
  • 2022, 43 (2): 167-172. doi: 10.3873/j.issn.1000-1328.2022.02.004
  • Abstract ( 235 ) PDF (1407KB)( 355 )
    This paper systematically reviews the types of parking orbits near the moon that can be used to deploy space station, and gives the definitions and main parameters of different types of orbits. The energy requirements, mission support, space environment and other characteristics of different types of orbits are analyzed through simulation calculation and comparison of domestic and foreign orbit research conclusions. The main considerations and basis for the selection of the deployment orbit for deep space Gateway are analyzed. Finally, this paper offers several suggestions on the application of various kinds of orbits, which can provide technical reference for the selection of the parking orbit for the future deployment of lunar space station.
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  • Design of Precise Lunar Impact Trajectory for Circumlunar Microsatellite
  • QIU Shi, CAO Xi bin, WANG Feng
  • 2021, 42 (6): 687-696. doi: 10.3873/j.issn.1000-1328.2021.06.002
  • Abstract ( 146 ) PDF (13859KB)( 345 )
    To achieve precise and controllable lunar impact under constrained conditions, this paper proposes a precise lunar impact trajectory design method based on the Lambert problem. By solving the Lambert problem, the initial value of the velocity pulse is obtained, and then the accurate solution of lunar impact trajectory is gained by iterative shooting method. Taking the “Longjiang 2” microsatellite trajectory as an example, the coverage of the latitude and longitude of the impact point as well as the feasible trajectory arc of the same impact point under fuel constraints are comprehensively analyzed. Finally, the validity of the trajectory design method is verified through a lunar impact trajectory design case for lunar south pole water ice detection.

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  • Integrated Guidance and Control for Missile Using Deep Reinforcement Learning
  • PEI Pei, HE Shao ming, WANG Jiang, LIN De fu
  • 2021, 42 (10): 1293-1304. doi: 10.3873/j.issn.1000-1328.2021.10.010
  • Abstract ( 306 ) PDF (12346KB)( 339 )
    This paper proposes an integrated guidance and control algorithm based on deep reinforcement learning technique. Differently from the traditional integrated guidance and control algorithm and designing the guidance loop and control loop separately, the fin deflection command of proposed integrated guidance and control algorithm is given by the agent through the observation states of missile. The agent is generated by the deep reinforcement learning. To utilize the deep reinforcement learning technique in integrated guidance and control problem, we transfer the integrated guidance and control problem into a Markovian decision process that enables the application of reinforcement learning theory. A heuristic way is utilized to shape a proper reward function that has tradeoff between guidance accuracy, energy consumption and interception time. The state of the art deep deterministic policy gradient algorithm is utilized to learn an action policy that maps the observation states to a fin deflection command. Extensive empirical numerical simulations are performed to validate the effectiveness and robustness of proposed integrated guidance and control algorithm.

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  • Research on Autonomous Detection and Tracking Method for Rendezvous and Proximity of an Uncooperative Target
  • DU Rong hua, ZHANG Xiang, WANG Ning, WANG Ling, ZHANG Xing xing
  • 2021, 42 (5): 621-633. doi: 10.3873/j.issn.1000-1328.2021.05.009
  • Abstract ( 171 ) PDF (14809KB)( 332 )
    An autonomous detection and tracking method for rendezvous and proximity of an uncooperative target in space is proposed. After the camera captures the original images, the derived high precision satellite attitude is used to determine the precise camera’s pointing, and the initial stellar objects removal is implemented in conjunction with the stellar library, and then the target is accurately identified based on the difference in the trajectories of different objects in the images. Under the condition that only the target’s line of sight angle is observable, a relative motion equation is established based on the relative orbital elements, and an extended Kalman filter (EKF) is used to construct an angles only relative navigation filter to derive the relative motion state between the target and the active satellite. A semi physical simulation platform is built to test the performances of the method in three orbital scenarios. The results show that when the pointing accuracy of the satellite attitude determination is better than 3″, the target detection accuracy of the method can reach above 96%, and the relative orbit determination accuracy of the proposed angles only relative navigation filter can reach within 1% of the measured range.

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  • Round trip Transfers to Earth Moon DRO and Halo for Supporting Lunar Exploration
  • ZENG Hao, LI Zhao yu, XU Rui, HAO Ping, PENG Kun
  • 2021, 42 (12): 1483-1492. doi: 10.3873/j.issn.1000-1328.2021.12.001
  • Abstract ( 289 ) PDF (12452KB)( 327 )
    For manned lunar and deep space exploration missions in the future, the transfer design of low energy round trip circumlunar orbit and libration point in the Earth Moon system is studied, the effect of circumlunar orbit changes on key parameters such as flight time and mission fuel consumption are systematically analyzed under different three body orbits, and a search strategy for the initial value of round trip orbit design is presented. In order to solve the problem of initial value sensitivity of design variables, a differential correction algorithm is used to rapidly construct the initial transfer orbit by combining the invariant manifold with the characteristics of the libration point orbit. Considering multiple constraints such as near lunar and optimal fuel simultaneously, the round trip trajectory between the circumlunar orbit and libration point orbit is further studied through the multiple shooting method and quadratic programming algorithm, and the gradient formula of the constraint equations is deduced to improve the design efficiency. In order to analyze the characteristics of round trip orbits and verify the effectiveness of the design strategy, the relationship between the variation of parameters, such as amplitude of three body orbits, the inclination of different circumlunar orbits, and the transfer time and fuel consumption is studied. The design results have important reference significance for the design of round trip orbits and selection of parameters for the deployment of lunar exploration vehicles.

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