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  • Joint Optimal Control Technology of Launch Vehicle Flight Load
  • YUAN He, LI Jinglin, SONG Zhengyu, ZHAO Yongzhi, XU Shanshu, ZENG Yaoxiang
  • 2022, 43 (10): 1291-1301. doi: 10.3873/j.issn.1000-1328.2022.10.002
  • Abstract ( 236 ) PDF (2381KB)( 159 )
    The launch probability of the modular launch vehicle is too low due to the mismatch between the flight load and the bearing capacity. To solve this problem, a joint optimization control method for lunch vehicle’s flight load based on ballistic wind correction, engine throttling, active deloading and refining of transverse dynamic load is proposed. With the constraint of vehicle body bearing capacity, this method joints multiple load control technologies to design a launch vehicle reversely for the purpose of improving launch probability.Taking the first flight of the Long March 8 launch vehicle as an example, this technology has successfully increased the launch probability from 33% in the initial stage of development to 83%.
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  • Research Progress on Space Assembled and Lightweight Structure Technologies
  • XIONG Jian, GONG Cheng, WEI Xingyu, LI Zhibin
  • 2022, 43 (11): 1429-1443. doi: 10.3873/j.issn.1000-1328.2022.11.001
  • Abstract ( 63 ) PDF (5881KB)( 89 )
    Current construction techniques of space assembled and lightweight structures are summarized, including five mainstream techniques, namely, interlocking assembly, stacking assembly, folding molding, inflatable molding and tensegrity molding. Taking inspace construction, lunar habitat and nearspace vehicle as typical applications, the aerospace applications of existing space assembled and lightweight structures are introduced. Finally, the space structure technologies are compared and analyzed, the existing challenges and technical difficulties are discussed, and the future development direction is prospected, in order to provide reference for the future research of lightweight space structure needed in aerospace missions.

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  • Time cost Heuristic Planning Method for Multi robot Cooperative Lunar Mission
  • ZHAO Yuting, XU Rui, YU Dengyun, ZHU Shengying, LI Zhaoyu, ZHAO Zhijun, PAN Bo
  • 2022, 43 (10): 1277-1290. doi: 10.3873/j.issn.1000-1328.2022.10.001
  • Abstract ( 133 ) PDF (5758KB)( 155 )
    In order to optimize the overall mission duration of the lunar scientific research station construction, a time cost heuristic planning method for the multi robot cooperative mission is proposed. For the in situ and path tasks in the construction process, a dual type task relation graph is constructed, and a heuristic strategy of multi location transfer time cost is proposed to guide the search direction of this graph, so that the planner can process tasks one by one along the local shortest time consuming task path, and reduce the path transfer time of the robots. A time cost heuristic strategy is proposed to allocate the robots, which can balance the task load and shorten the working time. Finally, taking the construction scenario of the lunar scientific research station including lunar resource mining, material transportation, facility construction and other tasks as an example, the planning algorithm is verified by simulation. The results show that this method can generate multi robot cooperative planning sequences satisfying complex constraints. Compared with the traditional planning method, the proposed method has fewer redundant paths and shorter task time, which can realize the efficient time sharing reuse of various robots in multiple tasks.
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  • A Rapid Design Method of P plane Parameters for Free return Orbit
  • LIU Yong, LIU Lei, CAO Pengfei, ZHANG Yao
  • 2022, 43 (11): 1444-1453. doi: 10.3873/j.issn.1000-1328.2022.11.002
  • Abstract ( 40 ) PDF (3465KB)( 64 )
    Aiming at the failure of the B plane parameter method due to the change of geocentric orbit type in the process of solving the free return trajectories, a rapid design method of the free return trajectories based on the P plane parameter is proposed. Firstly, based on the universality of orbital semi diameter parameters, the definitions of P plane parameters for different orbit types are given, and a free return trajectory solution model with P plane parameters as the solution target is established. Secondly, a rapid design method of free return orbit based on P plane parameters is given. Under the constructed instantaneous Earth Moon inertial system, the in plane dual two body free return orbit is taken as the initial value, and the rapid solution of free return orbit under the high precision force model is realized. The design results of eight free return orbits with different configurations show that the P plane parameters have a large convergence region similar to the B plane parameters, and the influence of the change of orbit types on the calculation is effectively solved, which can be directly applied to the orbit design of China’s subsequent lunar exploration missions.

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  • Review of Deployable SAR Antenna Structures of Spacecraft
  • QIU Hui, LIU Zhi quan, ZENG Hui zhong, BAI Zhao guang, YANG Zhi
  • 2021, 42 (10): 1197-1206. doi: 10.3873/j.issn.1000-1328.2021.10.001
  • Abstract ( 294 ) PDF (7377KB)( 463 )
    The development of four kinds of parabolic antenna structures is presented, including radial rib antenna structure, wrapped rib antenna structure, truss antenna structure and hoop antenna structure. A detailed comparison of these four structures is presented. Additionally, for the planar antenna structures, the features of wing antenna structures, truss antenna structures and membrane antenna structures are summarized. Finally, future trends of large, high packing factor and high surface accuracy are pointed out. And the technical difficulties which should be overcome before space applications of larger and higher precision SAR antennas are proposed.

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  • Rapid Algorithm of Space Objects Collision Probability with Equivalent Rectangular Area
  • DONG Wen pu, REN Lei sheng, ZHOU Hao, CHEN Hong, LAN Sheng wei, LI Yi
  • 2020, 41 (12): 1594-1600. doi: 10.3873/j.issn.1000-1328.2020.12.014
  • Abstract ( 300 ) PDF (4788KB)( 267 )
    The equivalent rectangular area algorithm is provided for the calculation of the collision probability, assuming that the relative motion of the objects is linear motion at the encounter time. The probability density approximates to analytical expression via the method. Besides, based on the approximation, the maximum collision probability is calculated in certain error ellipsoid shape case. For the application examples of the far and the close encounter with collision objects, the collision probability and the maximum collision probability are obtained by the method. The results from our method are compared with the algorithm based on space compression and infinite series. The comparisons show that the equivalent rectangular area algorithm is reliable, and the results from the different cases calculated by the equivalent rectangular area algorithm reveal a better accuracy and a more stable offset error.
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  • Design and Performance Analysis of the Cat inspired Lunar Landing Mechanism
  • WANG Chen, CHEN Jinbao, DONG Zirui, CHEN Heng, YUAN Yingnan, ZHU Jinyao
  • 2022, 43 (10): 1302-1310. doi: 10.3873/j.issn.1000-1328.2022.10.003
  • Abstract ( 118 ) PDF (4806KB)( 123 )
    Aiming at the problem that the buffering force of the existing passive aluminum honeycomb lunar lander fluctuated greatly and could not be reused, the cat inspired lunar landing mechanism based on magnetorheological damper is proposed. Firstly, the jumping and landing experiments of house cats from different height platforms are carried out, and the attitude and the impulse of their front/rear legs touching the ground are analyzed to explore the buffering and absorption mechanism of house cats. The results show that rear legs absorb more than front legs. Secondly, based on the cat jumping experiments and the parameters of China’s Chang’e series lunar landers, a novel cat inspired landing buffering mechanism is designed, simulated and compared. The results show that the maximum acceleration of the proposed cat inspired lander is reduced by 18.3% and has better landing performance. The shock absorption contribution of the front legs is about 40%, and that of the rear legs is about 60%, which is basically consistent with experiments of house cats. The rationality of the proposed lunar landing buffering mechanism design is verified.
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  • Some Achievements on Interception of Near Space Hypersonic Vehicles

  • ZHAO Liang yu , YONG En mi , WANG Bo lan
  • 2020, 41 (10): 1239-1250. doi: 10.3873/j.issn.1000-1328.2020.10.001
  • Abstract ( 505 ) PDF (958KB)( 663 )
    In order to support the fundamental research and engineering development on interception of near space hypersonic vehicles in China, following the introduction of the flight characteristics and mission profiles of the typical near space hypersonic targets, the research achievements including target early warning and detection, trajectory tracking and prediction, guidance and control methods, and interception strategies are reviewed. Some key technical issues and feasible solutions in each aspect are discussed. It is suggested that the research should focus on early warning with space/near space/air/ground/sea system, infrared multimode seeker, direct/aerodynamic force control, collaborative interception and defense and so on.
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  • Design and Experimental Verification of a Coaxial Mars Rotorcraft
  • ZHU Kai jie, TANG De wei, SHEN Wen qing, LV Yi xuan, ZHAO Peng yue, DENG Hui chao, QUAN Qi quan, MENG Lin zhi, WANG Tong, DENG Zong quan
  • 2021, 42 (10): 1207-1216. doi: 10.3873/j.issn.1000-1328.2021.10.002
  • Abstract ( 214 ) PDF (8511KB)( 282 )
    For a Mars aircraft exploration mission, a coaxial Mars rotorcraft is proposed. The structural parameters, such as the blade airfoil, planform, and twist angle, are optimized based on the computational fluid dynamics methods. The aerodynamic model of the rotor is established based on the blade element theory and momentum theory. The flight parameters such as rotor speed, rotor spacing, and blade installation angle are selected based on the numerical simulation methods, which prompt the design of the structure and control system of the prototype “MarsBird I”. A Martian atmosphere simulator and a combined device for gravity compensation and motion constraint are constructed to carry out the ground flight test of the Mars rotorcraft under a simulated Mars environment, which verifies the propulsion performance of the coaxial Mars rotorcraft. Besides, we prospect the research directions of the Mars rotorcraft technology. The research results provide an important reference for China’s Mars exploration project.
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  • Design and Verification of the Inchworm like Mars Rover
  • ZHANG Wangjun, DANG Zhaolong, TAO Zhuo, JIA Yang, CHEN Baichao, PAN Dong
  • 2022, 43 (9): 1143-1151. doi: 10.3873/j.issn.1000-1328.2022.09.002
  • Abstract ( 221 ) PDF (6013KB)( 221 )
    Aiming at the problems that the traditional passive suspension rover may have in the complex terrain movement of Mars, the inchworm like rover is designed, including subsidence and escape, hill climbing, bottom support and wheel lift design. The key parameters of the moving system of the inchworm like rover were identified, and the key parameter values of different lifting heights of the rover and the displacement value of one inchworm movement period are calculated. The results show that the inchworm like rover can solve the above problems of passive suspension rover. Ground tests and flight tests have been carried out on the designed inchworm like rover, and verified the ability of wheel sinkage and extrication, obstacle crossing and slope climbing. As an example of application of the imitated inchworm rover, the Mars rover Zhurong has successfully undergone flight tests, and its smooth operation on the surface of Mars shows that the design measures of the inchworm like rover are effective.
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  • Optimal algor ithm of spacecraf t structural model updating
  • Zhu A nw en, Q u Guangji, Gao Yaonan
  • 2003, 24 (1): 107-110.
  • Abstract ( 673 ) PDF (231KB)( 798 )

    In spacecraft st ructure design, FEM updated by test data, so the updated st ructuralmodel could sim ulate the st ructuralmechanical behavio rmo re accurately. The updated st ructuralmodel should rep lace some expen sive st ructural test, such as full size st ructural test w ith simulated ult imate load. It should take sho rter t ime and co st lessmoney using the new design methodo logy. The dynam ic reduct ion, sensit ivity analysis and op t im ize arith met ic of spacecraft st ructuralModelU pdat ing are studied. Based on the FEM softw are DA SS,w e w ro te the model updat ing softw areMU SS110. A t last,MU SS110 had been validated in two simulat ing examp les and an instance

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  • SEREAT: A Software for Space Radiation Effects Assessment
  • CHEN Shan qiang, LIU Si qing, SHI Li qin, CHEN Dong
  • 2017, 38 (3): 317-322. doi: 10.3873/j.issn.1000-1328.2017.03.013
  • Abstract ( 496 ) PDF (2331KB)( 811 )

    In order to calculate the space radiation effects precisely and instantly in a spacecraft, a new Space Environment and Radiation Effect Analysis Tool (SEREAT) is developed based on Open CASCADE and Geant4. The sector analysis module of SEREAT has been developed to calculate the spacecraft shielding at any point by integrating the ray tracing method. This study provides a convenient tool to convert the computer-aided design (CAD) geometry models into the GDML (The Geometry Description Markup Language) models for Geant4 applications. Using the distribution of the shielding thickness produced by the sector analysis module, SEREAT can calculate and analyze the radiation effects, such as the particle flux behind the shielding, total ionization dose, single event upsets, etc. Total ionization dose at a geostationary orbit is calculated by SEREAT, and the result shows that SEREAT can meet the needs of radiation effect analysis in a complex spacecraft.

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  • Modeling and Analysis of Deployment Dynamics for UltraFlex Solar Array
  • XIN Peng fei, LIU Zhi chao, RONG Ji li, LIU Cheng, WU Zhi pei, LIU Bin
  • 2020, 41 (3): 262-269. doi: 10.3873/j.issn.1000-1328.2020.03.002
  • Abstract ( 147 ) PDF (3252KB)( 415 )
    Circular UltraFlex solar array has characteristics of rigid-flexible coupling, difficulty in dynamics modeling,large overall movement of thin membrane without gravity and high deployment precision. In response, a numerical dynamics model of a typical UltraFlex structure is established in this paper to analyze the well-ordered deployment dynamics features by the driving of the torsion spring and the rope. An absolute coordinate-based method is used to model the flexible components and thin membrane in the structure. A two-step detection method is employed to deal with the complex contact-collision problem between thin membrane. UltraFlex is driven by using the gradually released torsion spring and rope. The trajectory of the pivot panel is planned and tracked by designing the changing rate of the rope length to improve the deployment positioning accuracy. The above driving strategy is then applied to an UltraFlex numerical model based on the NASA prototype. The numerical simulations have demonstrated that the UltraFlex structure can be well-ordered and accurately deployed; the rope is always in tension and provides 62.5 N maximal tension during the deployment; tension/rebound of the thin membrane occurs repeatedly and eventually the whole structure stabilizes.
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  • Model Predictive Static Programming Terminal Guidance Method Considering Side window Constraints
  • QUAN Shenming, CHAO Tao, ZHANG Denghui, YANG Ming
  • 2022, 43 (10): 1322-1332. doi: 10.3873/j.issn.1000-1328.2022.10.005
  • Abstract ( 78 ) PDF (2852KB)( 86 )
    Aiming at the problem that the target is easy to lose in the terminal guidance stage due to the asymmetric field of view constraints in the side window detection mode, a terminal guidance method for side window detection based on model prediction static programming is proposed. Firstly, a three dimensional relative motion model is established based on the body line of sight coordinate system, and an accurate model independent of the ‘small angle of attack’ assumption is obtained. Based on the model predictive static programming method to deal with the problem of no process constraints, slack variables and virtual control variables are introduced, and a corresponding terminal guidance algorithm is designed. In order to further reduce the dependence of the terminal guidance algorithm on the initial guess trajectory and improve the adaptability and computational efficiency, a computational strategy of gradually increasing constraints is proposed. The simulation results show that the proposed method satisfies the side window constraints during the terminal guidance stage. Compared with the convex optimization method, the optimization variables are reduced and the calculation speed is faster. Compared with the terminal guidance law based on the barrier Lyapunov function, the proposed method can adapt to different initial conditions, while satisfying the side window constraints.
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  • Research on Distributed Navigation System Based on Skew Redundant Sensors
  • WU Feng xi, LIU Hai ying,HUA Bing
  • 2015, 36 (2): 173-178. doi: 10.3873/j.issn.1000-1328.2015.02.007
  • Abstract ( 255 ) PDF (2240KB)( 625 )

    In order to meet the requirement of inertial navigation system (INS) for low cost and high performance and solve problems of high cost and large volume of the traditional single master INS, low cost MEMS inertial sensors are installed in skew redundant configuration. Based on the Kalman filter, a new optimal data fusion approach based on virtual sensors is proposed, thus the dynamic model of measurement system is simplified, the computational effort is reduced, and the measurement accuracy is improved. The distributed navigation system based on skew redundant sensors is designed by installing multiple skew redundant inertial measurement unit (SRIMU) nodes in different parts of the carrier. With analysis on the sensor network architecture, the measurement fusion of the distribution navigation system is designed by using the equivalent model based on virtual sensors. The simulation results verify that the optimal data fusion based on virtual sensors improves the measurement accuracy and that the distributed navigation system provides the high accuracy navigation information and suppresses the impact of carrier’s local stochastic perturbation on navigation performance.

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  • Feasibility Analysis on Hypersonic Vehicle Detection by Over the Horizon Radar
  • YU Zhe feng, LIANG Shi chang, GAO Tie suo, SUN Liang kui, HUANG Jie, LIU Senc
  • 2018, 39 (8): 920-925. doi: 10.3873/j.issn.1000-1328.2018.08.012
  • Abstract ( 218 ) PDF (3336KB)( 395 )

    The scattering characteristics of a hypersonic near space vehicle are studied in this paper. The research takes into account the effect of the surrounding flow and wake on the radar cross section (RCS) of the near space hypersonic vehicle. The results show that the maximal plasma density of the surrounding flow, near wake and part of the far wake is higher than the critical plasma density of the ionosphere and much higher than the critical plasma density of the over-the-horizon radar whose frequency ranges from 3 MHz to 30 MHz. The plasma wake may be seen as conducting observation when the radar frequency is lower than the plasma frequency. So the RCS of the plasma wake is even larger than the hypersonic vehicle. On the basis of the numerical analysis, we suggest to detect the near space hypersonic vehicle by an over-the-horizon radar, which may provide longer reaction time for a radar warning system.

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  • Analytical Estimation and Analysis of Trajectory Performance for Hypersonic Long Range Missiles
  • WANG Jie yao, JIANG Yong, ZHONG Shi yong, XIONG Ling fang
  • 2016, 37 (4): 403-410. doi: 10.3873/j.issn.1000-1328.2016.04.005
  • Abstract ( 210 ) PDF (1544KB)( 1064 )

    An analytical method of trajectory parameter estimation is proposed for the boost-glide trajectory of hypersonic long-range missile. From the view of energy, an analytical estimation formula of gliding range and flight time is established by using the quasi-equilibrium gliding conditions. Then the effectiveness of glide trajectory parameters such as lift-drag ratio and initial velocity on range and time is studied. Moreover, the range and flight time characteristics of minimum energy elliptical trajectory are analyzed theoretically. Based on the analytical formula, the range and time characteristics of the glide trajectory and the elliptical trajectory under various conditions are compared. Also a criterion on determining the best application scope of the two trajectories is proposed. Finally, the simulation results show that the errors between the analytical estimation results and the numerical simulation results are less than 2%, indicating that the precision of the analytical estimation approach is high. As a result, the performances of glide trajectory may be analyzed reliably and effectively by use of the analytical method, and the analysis results may be provided for the preliminary selection of the trajectory scheme.

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