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  • Review and Prospects of Development of Space On orbit  Manufacturing Technology
  • YANG Xing wen, HAN Jing tao, LIU Jing, ZHANG Cong fa, LIANG Jin chao
  • 2021, 42 (11): 1343-1354. doi: 10.3873/j.issn.1000-1328.2021.11.001
  • Abstract ( 522 ) PDF (8140KB)( 830 )
    In this paper mainly starting from the development background and practical significance of space on orbit manufacturing technology, the development of on orbit manufacturing technology is classified, summarized and commented from the four aspects of on orbit 3D printing, on orbit welding, on orbit strip based plastic forming, and on orbit in situ manufacturing. A series of bottleneck problems encountered in the current development process are pointed out, and the future development trends are predicted. Combining with the successful experiences of foreign on orbit manufacturing technology, this article finally gives out the areas that need to be paid attention and the direction of efforts in the development of China’s on orbit manufacturing technology. It is expected to provide a useful reference for the layout of China’s space on orbit manufacturing technology.

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  • Research Progress and Prospect of the Hypersonic Flight Vehicle Control Technology
  • ZHANG Yuan, HUANG Xu, LU Kunfeng, BAI Wenyan, HUANG Wanwei
  • 2022, 43 (7): 866-879. doi: 10.3873/j.issn.1000-1328.2022.07.003
  • Abstract ( 327 ) PDF (4980KB)( 452 )
    Aiming at the difficulties of a class of hypersonic flight vehicle (HFV) involving variable configurations, the engineering application requirements are analyzed, and the research progress of several typical nonlinear control methods is summarized. Firstly, the sources and characteristics of several common research models of hypersonic flight vehicle are summarized. Secondly, based on the actual engineering requirements, the control difficulties and needs for the control system capability of such vehicle are analyzed. Furthermore, the current status of several typical nonlinear control methods and intelligent control methods for hypersonic flight vehicle are summarized, and the frameworks of various control schemes are given. Finally, some problems and directions for further research are discussed for the HFV control with diversified mission forms and complicated environment in the future.
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  • Research Progress on Dynamics and Control of the Space Elevator
  • GUAN Yingzi, WEN Zida, WANG Xiaowei, ZHANG Feng, CUI Naigang
  • 2022, 43 (5): 537-547. doi: 10.3873/j.issn.1000-1328.2022.05.001
  • Abstract ( 294 ) PDF (1060KB)( 373 )
    The components and initial deployment of a space elevator system is briefly introduced in this work. On this basis, aiming at the complex dynamics and control problems existing both in the initial deployment and the follow up operation, the development status of dynamics and control of the space elevator system is analyzed and summarized from five aspects, including the dynamic modeling, stability, cable oscillation, cable oscillation caused by climber(s) motion and oscillation suppression, and initial deployment dynamics. Finally, further development of dynamics and control of the space elevator is summarized and prospected.

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  • Analysis on Selection of Parking Orbit for Lunar Space Station
  • PENG Qi bo, LV Ji yuan
  • 2022, 43 (2): 167-172. doi: 10.3873/j.issn.1000-1328.2022.02.004
  • Abstract ( 235 ) PDF (1407KB)( 355 )
    This paper systematically reviews the types of parking orbits near the moon that can be used to deploy space station, and gives the definitions and main parameters of different types of orbits. The energy requirements, mission support, space environment and other characteristics of different types of orbits are analyzed through simulation calculation and comparison of domestic and foreign orbit research conclusions. The main considerations and basis for the selection of the deployment orbit for deep space Gateway are analyzed. Finally, this paper offers several suggestions on the application of various kinds of orbits, which can provide technical reference for the selection of the parking orbit for the future deployment of lunar space station.
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  • Round trip Transfers to Earth Moon DRO and Halo for Supporting Lunar Exploration
  • ZENG Hao, LI Zhao yu, XU Rui, HAO Ping, PENG Kun
  • 2021, 42 (12): 1483-1492. doi: 10.3873/j.issn.1000-1328.2021.12.001
  • Abstract ( 289 ) PDF (12452KB)( 327 )
    For manned lunar and deep space exploration missions in the future, the transfer design of low energy round trip circumlunar orbit and libration point in the Earth Moon system is studied, the effect of circumlunar orbit changes on key parameters such as flight time and mission fuel consumption are systematically analyzed under different three body orbits, and a search strategy for the initial value of round trip orbit design is presented. In order to solve the problem of initial value sensitivity of design variables, a differential correction algorithm is used to rapidly construct the initial transfer orbit by combining the invariant manifold with the characteristics of the libration point orbit. Considering multiple constraints such as near lunar and optimal fuel simultaneously, the round trip trajectory between the circumlunar orbit and libration point orbit is further studied through the multiple shooting method and quadratic programming algorithm, and the gradient formula of the constraint equations is deduced to improve the design efficiency. In order to analyze the characteristics of round trip orbits and verify the effectiveness of the design strategy, the relationship between the variation of parameters, such as amplitude of three body orbits, the inclination of different circumlunar orbits, and the transfer time and fuel consumption is studied. The design results have important reference significance for the design of round trip orbits and selection of parameters for the deployment of lunar exploration vehicles.

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  • Mission Reconstruction Method with Lightweight Online Computation for Launch Vehicles under Thrust Drop Fault
  • HE Xiao, TAN Shu jun, WU Zhi gang, ZHANG Li yong, LIU Yu xi
  • 2022, 43 (3): 344-355. doi: 10.3873/j.issn.1000-1328.2022.03.010
  • Abstract ( 146 ) PDF (4480KB)( 318 )
    To avoid the launch failure of launch vehicles caused by thrust drop faults, an online mission reconstruction method based on radial basis function neural network (RBFNN) is proposed, which can quickly obtain the approximate solution of flight trajectory from the fault position to the optimal rescue orbit (optimal trajectory, OT) online. In the offline part, mission reconstruction problems under numerous fault states of the thrust drop are solved by the convex optimization and the adaptive collocation method to generate the dataset about the fault states versus the OT. The dataset is used to train the RBFNN to establish a trajectory decision making model for mapping the relationship from the fault states to the OT. During the online application, instead of iteratively solving the trajectory optimization problem, the RBFNN trained offline is used for forward propagation, the approximate solution of the OT can quickly be obtained by the trajectory decision making model. The effectiveness of the proposed method in the case of circular orbit and elliptical orbit is validated by the numerical simulation. The results show that the online solving times of the proposed method are decreased by more than three orders of magnitude, compared with the direct method.
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  • Review of Deployable SAR Antenna Structures of Spacecraft
  • QIU Hui, LIU Zhi quan, ZENG Hui zhong, BAI Zhao guang, YANG Zhi
  • 2021, 42 (10): 1197-1206. doi: 10.3873/j.issn.1000-1328.2021.10.001
  • Abstract ( 294 ) PDF (7377KB)( 463 )
    The development of four kinds of parabolic antenna structures is presented, including radial rib antenna structure, wrapped rib antenna structure, truss antenna structure and hoop antenna structure. A detailed comparison of these four structures is presented. Additionally, for the planar antenna structures, the features of wing antenna structures, truss antenna structures and membrane antenna structures are summarized. Finally, future trends of large, high packing factor and high surface accuracy are pointed out. And the technical difficulties which should be overcome before space applications of larger and higher precision SAR antennas are proposed.

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  • Design and Implementation of GNC System for Entry Capsule of Tianwen 1 Probe
  • ZHAO Yu, YUAN Li, WANG Xiao lei, HUANG Xiang yu, LIU Wang wang, HUA Bao cheng, LI Mao deng, XU Li jia, WANG Yun peng, HAO Ce, LI Tao, ZHANG Lin
  • 2022, 43 (1): 1-10. doi: 10.3873/j.issn.1000-1328.2022.01.001
  • Abstract ( 247 ) PDF (3904KB)( 310 )
    In order to cope with the characteristics of short duration of Mars EDL process, large telemetry and telecontrol delay, large impact dynamic environment and shortage of high precision map, the entry capsule GNC system of Tianwen 1 probe is designed with autonomy and fault tolerance. The design of system level hot backup and heterogeneous hot backup of key components ensures the independent diagnosis and correction of component failure. The fault tolerance of the system is improved by the strategies of independent work mode conversion and the multi criterion backup of key work mode conversion. The autonomous impact resistance management of the components power supply as well as the autonomous fault diagnosis and correction strategy of touch down sensors ensure the effective response to the high dynamic conditions such as the initiation of initiating explosive device. Aiming at the combination of parachute backshell avoidance and terrain obstacle avoidance, a set of hazard avoidance system and its application strategy of laser imaging sensor and optical sensor are designed. Special experiments such as helicopter flight test are implemented to verify the system design. In actual flight, the entry capsule GNC system of Tianwen 1 probe successfully implemented the key actions such as unfolding the trim wing, completed the parachute backshell avoidance and terrain obstacle avoidance, and achieved the final landing accuracy of 3.1 km, which fully proved the correctness of the system design.

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  • Online Trajectory Planning Method for Rocket Vertical Recovery Based on hp Pseudospectral Homotopic Convex Optimization
  • GUO Jie, XIANG Yan, WANG Xiao, SHI Pengfei, TANG Shengjing
  • 2022, 43 (5): 603-614. doi: 10.3873/j.issn.1000-1328.2022.05.006
  • Abstract ( 146 ) PDF (4351KB)( 295 )
    For the trajectory optimization problem of reusable launch vehicle vertical recovery, an online trajectory planning algorithm with optimal terminal time estimation strategy is proposed based on the hp pseudospectral homotopic convex optimization method. Firstly, considering the non convexity of the state constraints and process constraints, the lossless convexification is used to deal with the thrust magnitudes constraint. Then, the aerodynamic and non convex mass constraint are transformed into linear time varying profile by combing the homotopic approach and fixed point iteration ideas to complete the problem convexification. The control problem is further discretized based on the hp flipped Radau pseudospectral method, and is transformed into a parameter optimization problem, which is then solved by the primal dual interior point method. Finally, in order to further reduce fuel consumption and improve economic efficiency, considering the problem that the optimal terminal time is difficult to be determined online, a fast estimation strategy for the optimal terminal time is designed by combining analytical derivation and quadratic interpolation method. The simulation results show that the designed trajectory optimization algorithm has fast speed of optimal terminal time estimation, excellent convergence performance, high accuracy and computational efficiency, and has the potential for online application.
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  • Structure and Mechanism Technology of In Space Manufacturing Space Optical Telescope
  • GUO Chong ling, CHEN Chuan zhi, CHEN Jin bao, WANG Wei zhi
  • 2022, 43 (2): 158-166. doi: 10.3873/j.issn.1000-1328.2022.02.003
  • Abstract ( 242 ) PDF (1024KB)( 283 )
    Centering on the structural mechanism technology in the on orbit construction of space optical telescope, this paper focuses on the basic concepts and technical characteristics of key technologies related to structure and mechanism, including topology optimization and module technology of space structure of large telescope, high precision deployment adjustment and locking technology of optical mechanical structure and mechanism, on orbit additive manufacturing technology of typical optical mechanical components. It also analyzes the technical connotation and advanced technical approaches of robot assisted autonomous precision assembly and control technology. Finally, the development trend of structure and mechanism technology in on orbit construction and some technical problems to be studied are prospected. This paper may provide a reference for evolution of space optical telescope.
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  • Dual level Path trajectory Generation with Complex No fly Zone Constraints for Hypersonic Vehicle
  • ZHANG Yuan, ZHANG Ran, LI Huifeng
  • 2022, 43 (5): 615-627. doi: 10.3873/j.issn.1000-1328.2022.05.007
  • Abstract ( 152 ) PDF (3458KB)( 281 )
    Aiming at the avoidance for hypersonic vehicle in complex no fly zones, in order to solve the problem that the existing trajectory generation methods are strongly dependent on the initial guess, a path trajectory generation method is proposed based on the dual level planning modeling. Among them, the upper level is for path planning, providing path points information for the trajectory to avoid local solutions; the lower level is for trajectory planning, using the path points output by the upper layer to divide the trajectory into several sub segments with small lateral maneuver, and the lateral and longitudinal flight profiles are analytically solved to reduce the simplification error of the motion model. Numerical simulations show that, compared with the existing methods, this method can select the path with better indicators and then improve the global performance. In addition, the guidance error of analytical flight profile is less than 0.03%, which solves the analytical problem of large scale lateral maneuvering.
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  • Influence of Coupling of Gas Radiation and Flow Field on Thermal Environment of Mars Entry Vehicle
  • NIE Chun sheng, NIE Liang, YANG Guang, YUAN Ye
  • 2021, 42 (12): 1610-1620. doi: 10.3873/j.issn.1000-1328.2021.12.014
  • Abstract ( 62 ) PDF (10648KB)( 280 )
    The influence of high temperature gas radiation and nonequilibrium coupling effect on the flow field and aeroheating of the Pathfinder Mars probe entry process is numerically investigated in this paper, by solving three dimensional thermo chemical nonequilibrium Navier Stokes equations with the radiation source term and Martian atmosphere reaction model. The results reveal that: 1) Thermochemical non equilibrium effect is significant during the Mars entry, carbon dioxide is dissociated substantially and thermal nonequilibrium effect can be observed at an altitude as low as 28.5 km. 2) The influence of thermal and chemical nonequilibrium effect are related with surface catalytic characteristics, heat flux on the probe surface under full catalytic condition is 50% higher than that of the non catalytic condition. 3) The carbon monoxide in the flow field will produce strong radiation heating, the proportion of radiation heat flux to convective heat flux is approximately 15%~45% and reaches its peak near the shoulder region. 4) The cooling effect of the gas radiation effect would lead to a reduction of the shockwave standoff distance, and the radiative heat flux obtained by the coupled method is decreased by about 12%~25% compared to the uncoupled method.
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  • Review on Hybrid Propulsion Technology of Micro/Nano Satellite
  • ZHANG Zhi yuan, DENG Han yu, LIAO Wen he, ZHANG Xiang, ZHAO Ling, BI Yi fan
  • 2022, 43 (3): 282-292. doi: 10.3873/j.issn.1000-1328.2022.03.003
  • Abstract ( 172 ) PDF (2531KB)( 280 )
    The characteristics and advantages of micro/nano satellite hybrid propulsion system are firstly introduced. The development status of micro/nano satellite hybrid propulsion technology is further summarized. Then, the tendency and problem are also presented on the basis of requirements of micro/nano satellite propulsion system. Based on these, the main key technologies that need to be overcome are introduced from the perspective of satellite engineering applications, including advanced integrated manufacturing, reliable low power multiple ignitions, improvement in specific impulse and efficient combustion. At last, the suggestions on development of the micro/nano satellite hybrid propulsion system in China are given.
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  • Study and Experimental Verification on Dynamic Magnification Factor of Parachute Inflation and Ejection Loads of Mars Entry Vehicle
  • WANG Gang, YANG Chang hao, QI Yu feng
  • 2021, 42 (11): 1355-1364. doi: 10.3873/j.issn.1000-1328.2021.11.002
  • Abstract ( 167 ) PDF (11019KB)( 278 )
    Firstly, the analytical formulas of the dynamic magnification factor with the pulse time of the response spectrum of a single degree of freedom system under the rectangular and half sine pulse are derived. Then the parachute inflation and ejection low frequency high shock load dynamic simulation model of the Mars entry vehicle is built based on abaqus explict dynamics, and the influence of the shock load shape, load time and load damping are analyzed. Finally, the experiments of the opening parachute load suspension impact dynamic load and the parachute load real parachute impact dynamic load are carried out.The results show that the structure responds decline when the shock load time is less than  1 ms , and the static equivalence load becomes steady when the load time is longer than 5 ms; the dynamics equivalence load of the parachute inflation is about 1 time than static because of the smooth time wave, but the parachute ejection’s is about 1~2 times than static due to the steep rectangle wave. 
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  • An Intelligent Prediction Method of Hypersonic Glide Vehicle Trajectory
  • ZHANG Jun biao, XIONG Jia jun, LAN Xu hui, XI Qiu shi, XIA Liang, ZHANG Kai
  • 2022, 43 (4): 413-422. doi: 10.3873/j.issn.1000-1328.2022.04.003
  • Abstract ( 389 ) PDF (3021KB)( 266 )
    In order to solve the problem of high maneuverability and difficult trajectory prediction of hypersonic glide vehicle (HGV), an intelligent trajectory prediction method of HGV based on ensemble empirical mode decomposition and attention long short term memory network is proposed by selecting the aerodynamic acceleration as the prediction parameter. Firstly, the maneuvering characteristics and the aerodynamic variation law of HGV are analyzed based on the six degree of freedom motion equation. The dynamic tracking model is established to estimate the aerodynamic acceleration in real time. Secondly, the estimated aerodynamic acceleration is decomposed and reconstructed by using ensemble empirical mode decomposition to weaken the influence of noise and avoid interference to the prediction model. Finally, the denoised aerodynamic acceleration data used to train the attention long short term memory network. Then the future aerodynamic acceleration data predicted and the future trajectory of HGV is reconstructed to achieve online trajectory prediction. The simulation results show that the method can effectively predict the maneuver trajectory of HGV with high prediction accuracy and good stability.
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